GCSE Latin: Positive Adverbs

Adverbs from 2-1-2 Adjectives

Most 2-1-2 adjectives can be made into an adverb by adding –e to the stem, e.g. laetus (happy) becomes laete (happily).

Note that multus (much) becomes multo (by much) and bonus (good) becomes bene (better).

Adverbs from 3rd Declension Adjectives

Most 3rd Declension adjectives can be made into an adverb by adding –ter to the stem, e.g. fortis (brave) becomes fortiter (bravely).

Note that facilis (easy) becomes facile (easily) and difficilis (difficult) can become difficile, difficiliter or even difficulter (with difficulty).

Other Adverbs

There are around 40 adverbs on the Defined Vocabulary List which do not come from adjectives.

Among these is forte (by chance), which is commonly found on the language paper, and should not be confused with fortiter (bravely) or fortius (more bravely).

Adverbs from adjectives

Adverb English Adjective English
alte deeply, on high altus high, deep
audacter boldly audax bold
bene well bonus good
breviter briefly, shortly brevis short, brief
celeriter quickly celer quick, fast
clare clearly, brightly, honourably clarus clear, bright, famous
crudeliter cruelly crudelis cruel
difficile (or difficiliter or difficulter) with difficulty difficilis difficult
dire dreadfully dirus dreadful
facile easily facilis easy
feliciter happily, luckily felix happy, lucky
ferociter fiercely, ferociously ferox fierce, ferocious
fideliter faithfully, loyally fidelis faithful, loyal
fortiter bravely fortis brave
graviter seriously, heavily gravis serious, heavy
infeliciter unhappily, unluckily infelix unhappy, unlucky
irate angrily iratus angry
laete happily laetus happy
lente slowly lentus slow
longe far off longus long
male badly malus evil, bad
multo (by) much multus much
primo at first, in the beginning primus first
pulchre beautifully pulcher beautiful, handsome
saeve savagely, cruelly saevus savage, cruel
tristiter sadly tristis sad
valide with strength, strongly validus strong

Other adverbs

Adverb English
adeo so much, so greatly
antea before
cras tomorrow
deinde then
diu for a long time
etiam also, even
forte by chance
frustra in vain
heri yesterday
hodie today
iam now, already
ibi there
interea meanwhile
ita in this way, to such an extent, so
iterum again
libenter willingly, gladly
maxime very greatly
minime very little, least, no
mox soon
non not
numquam never
nunc now
olim once, some time ago
paene almost, nearly
postea afterwards
postridie on the next day
quam (+ superlative) as…as possible
quam! how!
saepe often
semper always
sic thus, in this way
simul at the same time
statim at once, immediately
subito suddenly
tam so
tamen however
tandem at last, finally
tum then
ubi when
umquam ever
vehementer violently, loudly