GCSE Latin: Vocative case


Explanation

The vocative case is used to address someone directly.

e.g. domine, hic vir frater meus est.
Master, this man is my brother.

An optional “o” can be used in front of the vocative in English:

e.g. di, servate nos.
O gods, save us.

Notes

  1. “Vocative” comes from the Latin verb voco (“I call”) since it is used to call out to someone.

  2. The vocative singular is the same as the nominative singular, except for 2nd Declension nouns ending in -us.

  3. The vocative plural form is the same as the nominative plural form for all nouns.

  4. Vocatives only appear in direct speech and are cordoned off in the sentence by a comma. An imperative verb is often used in the same sentence.

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