A preposition is placed before a noun to create a prepositional phrase:
pater est in horto.
The father is in the garden.
Prepositions with ablative nouns often indicate separation or location, with accusative nouns they often indicate motion towards a place.
This is a list of the GCSE prepositions which take an accusative noun:
|ad||to, towards, at|
|propter||on account of, because of|
This is a list of the GCSE prepositions which take an ablative noun.
|a, ab||from, away from, by|
|de||from, down from, about|
|e, ex||from, out of, out|
|pro||in front of, for, in return for|
These can be remembered by the acronym SIDSPACE — which even has its own Wikipedia page.
Note that in and sub can be followed by either case, and for in this affects how it is translated.
If the prepositional phrase is joined by an adjective, the adjective can come in front of the prepostion:
summa cum virtute
with the greatest virtue
- liberi per vias currunt.
- exercitus in proelium progressus est.
- multi in villis manebant, pauci in foro.
- maximo in periculo eramus.
- prope flumen post templum habito.