GCSE Latin: Gerundive + ad


ad + Gerundive

When the gerundive form of a verb appears after the preposition ad, it forms a purpose clause:

exercitus e castris exiit ad hostes oppugnandos

The army went out of the camp in order to attack the enemy.

The literal translation of the above clause is “with a view to the enemy being attacked” — essentially the gerundive is passive.

The “object” in this purpose clause takes the accusative case (since it follows ad) and the gerundive agrees with this noun in case (accusative), number (singular/plural), and gender (m./f./n.).

The gerundive is formed in the following way:

1st Conjugation: portandus, -a, -um
2nd Conjugation: docendus, -a, -um
3rd Conjugation: regendus, -a, -um
4th Conjugation: audiendus, -a, -um
mixed Conjugation: capiendus, -a, -um
  1. Londinium ii ad reginam videndam.
  2. hostes regressi sunt ad se servandos.
  3. magister domum rediit ad optimum librum legendum.
  4. imperator tres legiones ducit ad urbem brevi tempore capiendam.
  5. tibi pecuniam dedi ad vinum emendum.