Kennedy Latin Primer



Kennedy’s New Latin Primer Online

This primer is designed to help you understand the fundamentals of Latin grammar. Navigate through the sections to start learning.

Flexion

Flexion is a change made in the form of a word to show differences of meaning and use.

The Stem is the simplest form of a word in any language before it undergoes changes of Flexion.

The Character is the final letter of the Stem.

The Root is the primitive element which the word has in common with kindred words in the same or in other languages.

Every word has a Stem and a Root. They may be the same, but more often the Stem is formed from the Root. Thus in agitare, agita- is the Stem and a the Stem-Character, but ag is the Root, as shown by other words, agere, agmen, agilis.

Note 1: A language which expresses changes of meaning chiefly by Flexion, and makes little use of help-words, is called synthetic. Latin is a synthetic language. A language which has little Flexion and uses many help-words is called analytic. English as now spoken is an analytic language. In analytic languages the place of the flexional endings is often supplied by prepositions used with nouns: Caesaris, of Caesar; by auxiliaries used with verbs: agitur, it is being done. Analytic languages also use the article: rex, a king, or the king; and they use pronouns with verbs: ago, I do.

Note 2: Flexion sometimes takes place by letter-change in the Root-syllable, ag1-mus, eg1-mus, or by an addition before it, which is called a Prefix, as ce-cin-i from cano. Most frequently, however, it consists in an addition made after the Stem, which is called a Suffix. In agitare, –re is a Suffix, and is also the ending; in agitarcmus, a second Suffix, –mus, is added and becomes the ending.

Parts of Speech

Words are divided into:

  • Nouns: which are of three kinds:

    • Substantives: names of persons, places, or things: Caesar, Caesar; Roma, Rome; sol, sun; virtus, virtue.

    • Adjectives, which express the qualities of Substantives: Roma antiqua, ancient Rome; sol clarus, the bright sun.

    • Pronouns, which stand for a Substantive or Adjective: ego, I; ille, that, he; meus, my, mine.

  • Verbs: which express an action or state: Sol dat lucem, the sun gives light; Roma manet, Rome remains.

  • Particles: which are of four kinds:

    • Adverbs, which qualify and limit Verbs, Adjectives, and sometimes other Adverbs: Roma diu floruit; nunc minus potens est. Rome flourished long; now it is less powerful.

    • Prepositions, which denote the relation of a Noun to other words in the sentence: Per Romam erro, I wander through Rome.

    • Conjunctions, which connect words, phrases, and sentences: Caelum suspicio ut lunam et sidera videam. I look up to the sky that I may see the moon and stars.

    • Interjections: words of exclamation: heu, alas!

Declension

Declension is the change of form which Nouns undergo to show changes of Number and Case.

The NUMBERS are two:

  • Singular for one person or thing: mensa, a table; gens, a nation.

  • Plural for more than one: mensae, tables; gentes, nations.

Case is the form which a Noun takes to show its relation to other words in the sentence. The CASES are six:

  • Nominative, the Subject Case, answering the question Who? or What?

  • Vocative, the Case of one addressed.

  • Accusative, the Object Case, answering the question Whom? or What?

  • Genitive, answering the question Of whom? or Of what?

  • Dative, answering the question To whom? or To what?

  • Ablative, answering the question From whom? or From what?

Examples of the cases:

  • Nominative: Sol lucet, the sun shines.

  • Vocative: Sol or o sol, o sun.

  • Accusative: Solem lucere video, I see the sun shine.

  • Genitive: Solis lux, the sun’s light, or the light of the sun.

  • Dative: Soli lux additur, light is added to the sun.

  • Ablative: Sole lux editur, light issues from the sun.

Note 1: The dative is also rendered for in English: Senatus urbi consulit, the Senate consults for the city.

Note 2: The ablative is rendered by many English prepositions besides from: in, by, with. To express the person by whom an action is done, the ablative is used with the preposition a, ab: Remus a Romulo interfectus est, Remus was slain by Romulus. To express the instrument with which an action is done, the ablative is used alone: Remus gladio interfectus est, Remus was slain with (or by) a sword.

Note 3: In ancient Latin there were two more cases, the Instrumental answering the question With what? and the Locative answering the question Where? The use of the Instrumental passed entirely to the ablative. But the Locative is often found in classical literature: humi, on the ground; Romae, at Rome; Athenis, at Athens.

Rules of Gender

The Genders are three:

  • Masculine

  • Feminine

  • Neuter (neutrum, neither of the two)

Gender is shown by the form of a word and by its meaning.

(A) Form:

  • Masculine are most Substantives in -us of the Second and Fourth Declensions, and those in -er of the Second Declension.

  • Feminine are nearly all Substantives in -a of the First Declension and in -es of the Fifth Declension.

  • Neuter are Substantives in -um of the Second Declension, in -u of the Fourth Declension, and indeclinable nouns, including the infinitive verb-noun.

  • For the third declension no general rule can be given.

(B) Meaning:

  • Masculine are all names of men, gods, months, and winds; also of most rivers and mountains: Romulus, Mars, October, Boreas, north wind, Tiberis, Olympus.

  • Feminine are all names of women, goddesses, islands; and of most countries, cities, and trees: Cornelia, Juno, Lesbos, Asia, Roma, pinus, pine.

  • Exceptions: Countries ending in -um, neuter; Latium; Pontus, masculine. Cities with plur. form in -i are masc.: Corioli, Delphi; those in -um, -on, -a (plur.) are neuter: Tarentum, Ilion, Arbela.

Note 1: In the early ages people imagined natural objects as living beings, and made them masculine or feminine, according to their notions of their qualities: ventus, wind, fluvius, river, mons, mountain, masculine; regio, country, urbs, city, arbor, tree, feminine; and words belonging to these classes took the same genders.

Note 2: Many o- Stems masc. (called Mobilia) have a corresponding form in -a feminine: fIlius, son; deus, god; arbiter, umpire. fllia, daughter; dea, goddess; arbitra, umpire.

Other corresponding forms are used: rex, king, regina, queen; victor, victrix, conqueror; nepos, grandson, neptis, granddaughter; socer, socrus, father-, mother-in-law.

Note 3: Nouns which include both masculine and feminine are said to be of common gender: sacerdos, priest or priestess, vates, seer, parens, parent, dux, leader, comes, companion, civis, citizen, custos, guardian, iudex, judge, heres, heir, ales, bird, canis, dog, serpens, serpent, tigris, tiger.

Many names of animals, though used of both sexes, have (in grammar) only one gender; they are called Epicene: aquila, eagle, fem.; lepus, hare, masc.; passer, sparrow, masc.

(For Memorial Lines on Gender, see Appendix IV.)

Declension of Substantives

Substantives are grouped in Declensions according to the Character or final letter of the Stem as follows:

  • FIRST DECLENSION: A- Stems.

  • SECOND DECLENSION: O- Stems.

  • THIRD DECLENSION: Consonant Stems and I- Stems.

  • FOURTH DECLENSION: U – Stems.

  • FIFTH DECLENSION: E- Stems.

Table of Case-Endings

Decl. I II III IV V
Stem a- o- consonant u- e-
Character ae i is us ei
Singular Nom. a us various us es
Voc. a e us es
Acc. am um em um em
Gen. ae i is us ei
Dat. ae o i ui ei
Abl. a o e u e
Plural Nom. ae i es us es
Voc. ae i es us es
Acc. as os es us es
Gen. arum orum um uum erum
Dat. is is ibus ibus ebus
Abl. is is ibus ibus ebus

Declension of Substantives (Continued)

The Character of the Stem is most clearly seen before the ending -um or -rum of the Genitive Plural.

The Nominative, masculine and feminine, takes s, except in a- Stems, some Stems in ro- of the Second Declension, and Stems in s, l, r, n, of the Third. The Vocative (which is not a true case) is like the Nominative, except in the singular of Nouns in -us of the Second Declension.

Neuters have the Accusative like the Nominative in both singular and plural; the plural always ends in a.

First Declension

A- Stems

The Nominative Singular is the same as the Stem.

Stem mensa- (table, f.)

Case Singular Plural
Nom. mensa mensae
Voc. mensa mensae
Acc. mensam mensas
Gen. mensae mensarum
Dat. mensae mensis
Abl. mensa mensis

Decline like mensa: aquila, eagle; luna, moon; regina, queen; stella, star.

Stems in a are mostly feminine. A few are masculine, as scriba, a notary; Hadria, the Adriatic sea.

Note 1: An old form of the gen. sing. -ai for -ae is sometimes used by poets, as aulaï. Also an old genitive of familia remains in compounds: pater- (mater-) familias, father (mother) of a family.

Note 2: The locative sing. ends in -ae; the plur. in -is; Romae, at Rome; militiae, at the war; Athenis, at Athens.

Note 3: The gen. plur. is sometimes formed in -um instead of -arum, by compounds with -cola, -gena: agricola, a farmer; and in some words borrowed from Greek: amphora, drachma.

Note 4: Dea and filia have dat. and abl. plural -abus, in order to distinguish them from the dat. and abl. plural of deus and filius.

Second Declension

O- Stems

The Nominative is formed from the Stem by adding s; in neuter nouns, m; the Character o being weakened to u.

In the greater number of nouns whose Stem ends in ero, or in ro preceded by a mute, the o is dropped, and the Nom. ends in -er.

Stem anno- (year, m.), puero- (boy, m.), magistro- (master, m.), bello- (war, n.)

Case Singular Plural
Nom. annus anni
Voc. anne anni
Acc. annum annos
Gen. anni annorum
Dat. anno annis
Abl. anno annis
Case Singular Plural
Nom. bellum bella
Voc. bellum bella
Acc. bellum bella
Gen. belli bellorum
Dat. bello bellis
Abl. bello bellis

Decline like annus: amicus, friend; dominus, lord; servus, slave.

Decline like puer: gener, son-in-law; socer, father-in-law; liberi (plur.), children; lucifer, light-bringer; armiger, armour-bearer.

Decline like magister: ager, field; cancer, crab; liber, book.

Decline like bellum: regnum, kingdom; verbum, word.

Nouns in us, er are masculine; in um neuter. The following in us are feminine besides words feminine by meaning: alvus, paunch; colus, distaff; humus, ground; vannus, winnowing-fan; also several from the Greek: arctus, the bear constellation; carbasus, linen; plur. carbasa, n., sails. Neuter in us (and used in the sing. only) are pelagus, sea; virus, venom.

Note: Vulgus, crowd, is generally neuter, rarely masculine.

Exceptional Forms

Stem filio- (son, m.), viro- (man, m.), deo- (god, m.)

Case Singular Plural
Nom. filius filii
Voc. fili filii
Acc. filium filios
Gen. filii or fili filiorum
Dat. filio filiis
Abl. filio filiis
Nom. (vi) vir viri
Voc. (vi) vir viri
Acc. (vi) virum viros
Gen. (vi) viri virorum or virum
Dat. (vi) viro viris
Abl. (vi) viro viris
Nom. (deo) deus dei
Voc. (deo) deus dei
Acc. (deo) deum deos
Gen. (deo) dei deorum or deum
Dat. (deo) deo dis (deis)
Abl. (deo) deo dis (deis)

Note 1: Like filius are declined genius, guardian spirit, and many proper names in -ius: Claudius, Vergilius; like vir, its compounds, decemvir, triumvir, etc. The contracted gen. sing. in -i, as fili, ingenii, is used by writers of the best age, especially poets.

Note 2: The locative singular ends in -i; the plural in -is: humi, on the ground; belli, at the war; Mileti, at Miletus; Philippis, at Philippi.

Note 3: The genitive plural in -um is often found; especially in words denoting coins, sums, weights, and measures: nummus, coin; talentum, talent. Some nouns have genitive plural in -um or -orum: socius, ally; faber, smith; liberi, children. Also superi, the gods, from adj. superus.

Third Declension

Consonant and I- Stems

The Third Declension contains:

A. Consonant Stems
  • Mutes:

    • (1) Gutturals, c, g.

    • (2) Dentals, t, d.

    • (3) Labials, p, b.

  • Spirants

  • Nasals, n, m.

  • Liquids, l, r.

B. I- Stems

Syllabus of Consonant Substantives, showing Stem-ending with Nominative and Genitive Singular

Stem-ending Nominative Sing. Genitive Sing. English
ac- fax, f. facis torch
ac- pax, f. pacis peace
ec- nex, f. necis death
ec- apex, m. apicis peak
ec- vervex, m. vervecis wether
ic- fornix, m. fornicis arch
ic- judex, c. judicis judge
ic- radix, f. radicis root
oc- vox, f. vocis voice
uc- lux, f. lucis light
eg- grex, m. gregis flock
eg- rex, m. regis king
eg- remex, m. remigis rower
ig- strix, f. strigis screech-owl
iig- conjunx, c. conjugis wife or husband
fig- wanting frugis fruit
lv- nix, f. nivis snow
at- anas, f. anatis duck
at- aetas, f. aetatis age
et- seges, f. segetis corn-crop
et- paries, m. parietis room-wall
et- quies, f. quietis rest
lt- miles, c. militis soldier
it- caput, n. capitis head
ot- nepos, m. nepotis grandson
iit- virtus, f. virtutis virtue
et- lac, n. lactis milk
ad- vas, m. vadis surety
ed- pes, m. pedis foot
ed- merces, f. mercedis hire
aed- praes, m. praedis bondsman
id- obses, c. obsidis hostage
ld- lapis, m. lapidis stone
od- custos, c. custodis guardian
iid- pecus, f. pecudis beast
iid- incus, f. incudis anvil
and- laus, f. laudis praise
rd- cor, n. cordis heart

Declension of Substantives (Pages 21-29)

Stems in Labials

Stems in Labials form Nom. regularly with s.

Stem Nominative Genitive English
ap- wanting dapis, f. banquet
ep-
Ip- princeps, c. principis chief
op- wanting opis, f. help
ep-
up- auceps, m. aucupis fowler

Stems in the Spirant s

Stems in the Spirant s, which, except in vas, becomes r.

Stem Nominative Genitive English
as- vas, n. vasis vessel
aes- aer- aeris copper, bronze
es- er- Cereris Ceres
is- er- cineris cinder
os- or- honoris honour
us- er- operis work
iis- iir- cruris leg

Stems in Liquids

Stem Nominative Genitive English
al- sal, m. salis salt
ell- mel, n. mellis honey
n- mugil, m. mugilis mullet
ol- sol, m. solis sun
ul- consul, m. consulis consul
ar- jubar, n. jubaris sunbeam
arr- far, n. farris flour
er- anser, m. anseris goose
er- ver, n. veris spring
ter- mater, f. matris mother
or- aequor, n. aequoris sea
or- ebur, n. eboris ivory
or- soror, f. sororis sister
ur- vultur, m. vulturis vulture
ur- fur, m. furis thief

Stems in Nasals

Stem Nominative Genitive English
en- nomen, n. nominis name
on- homo, m. hominis man
on- leo, m. leonis lion
ion- ratio, f. rationis reason
rn- caro, f. carnis flesh
an- canis, c. canis dog
en- juvenis, c. juvenis young person
em- hiemps, f. hiemis winter

A. Consonant Stems

(1) Stems in Gutturals: c, g.

Case Judex Radix Rex
Nom. judex radix rex
Voc. judex radix rex
Acc. judicem radicem regem
Gen. judicis radicis regis
Dat. judici radici regi
Abl. judice radice rege
Nom. Pl. judices radices reges
Voc. Pl. judices radices reges
Acc. Pl. judices radices reges
Gen. Pl. judicum radicum regum
Dat. Pl. judicibus radicibus regibus
Abl. Pl. judicibus radicibus regibus

Decline also: f. vox, voc-, voice; c. dux, duc-, leader; m. grex, greg-, flock.

(2) Stems in Dentals: t, d.

Case Miles Pes Caput
Nom. miles pes caput
Voc. miles pes caput
Acc. militem pedem caput
Gen. militis pedis capitis
Dat. militi pedi capiti
Abl. milite pede capite
Nom. Pl. milites pedes capita
Voc. Pl. milites pedes capita
Acc. Pl. milites pedes capita
Gen. Pl. militum pedum capitum
Dat. Pl. militibus pedibus capitibus
Abl. Pl. militibus pedibus capitibus

Decline also: f. virtus, virtut-, virtue; c. seges, seget-, corn; m. lapis, lapid-, stone.

(3) Stems in Labials: p, b.

Case Princeps
Nom. princeps
Voc. princeps
Acc. principem
Gen. principis
Dat. principi
Abl. principe
Nom. Pl. principes
Voc. Pl. principes
Acc. Pl. principes
Gen. Pl. principum
Dat. Pl. principibus
Abl. Pl. principibus

Decline also: c. forceps, forcip-, tongs; m. auceps, aucup-, fowler.

Stems in the Spirant s

Stems in s do not add s in the Nominative Singular, generally they change s into r in the other cases.

Case Flos Opus Crus
Nom. flos opus crus
Voc. flos opus crus
Acc. florem opus crus
Gen. floris operis cruris
Dat. flori operi cruri
Abl. flore opere crure
Nom. Pl. flores opera crura
Voc. Pl. flores opera crura
Acc. Pl. flores opera crura
Gen. Pl. florum operum crurum
Dat. Pl. floribus operibus cruribus
Abl. Pl. floribus operibus cruribus

Decline also: m. honos, honor-, honour; n. tempus, tempor-, time; corpus, corpor-, body; genus, gener-, race; jus, jur-, law.

Note 1: Vas, vas-, a vessel, keeps s in all the cases, and has plural vasa, vasorum, vasis. Os, oss-, n. bone, as, ass-, m., a coin, keep s in all the cases, and have gen. plur. ossium, assium.

Note 2: Honos, colos, colour, and other words changed in later Latin to honor, color, etc., in the nom. sing., with gen. -oris. Arbos, f., changed to arbor, arboris, tree.

Stems in Liquids: l, r

Stems in l, r, do not take s in the Nominative Singular.

Case Consul Amor Pater Aequor
Nom. consul amor pater aequor
Voc. consul amor pater aequor
Acc. consulem amorem patrem aequor
Gen. consulis amoris patris aequoris
Dat. consuli amori patri aequori
Abl. consule amore patre aequore
Nom. Pl. consules amores patres aequora
Voc. Pl. consules amores patres aequora
Acc. Pl. consules amores patres aequora
Gen. Pl. consulum amorum patrum aequorum
Dat. Pl. consulibus amoribus patribus aequoribus
Abl. Pl. consulibus amoribus patribus aequoribus

Decline also: m. sol, sol-, sun; orator, orator-, speaker; career, career-, prison; frater, fratr-, brother; n. ebur, ebor-, ivory.

Stems in Nasals: n, m

Stems ending in n do not take s in the Nominative Singular. Stems in on, om, drop the n.

Case Leo Virgo Nomen
Nom. leo virgo nomen
Voc. leo virgo nomen
Acc. leonem virginem nomen
Gen. leonis virginis nominis
Dat. leoni virgini nomini
Abl. leone virgine nomine
Nom. Pl. leones virgines nomina
Voc. Pl. leones virgines nomina
Acc. Pl. leones virgines nomina
Gen. Pl. leonum virginum nominum
Dat. Pl. leonibus virginibus nominibus
Abl. Pl. leonibus virginibus nominibus

Decline also: m. latro, latron-, robber; f. ratio, ration-, reason; m. ordo, ordin-, order; homo, homin-, man; n. carmen, carmin-, song.

There is only one Stem in m: hiemps, winter; Gen. hiemis, f.

B. I-Stems

(1) Stems with Nom. Sing. in -is, and in -er from stem ri-:

Case Civis Imber
Nom. civis imber
Voc. civis imber
Acc. civem imbrem
Gen. civis imbris
Dat. civi imbri
Abl. cive, -i imbre, -i
Nom. Pl. cives imbres
Voc. Pl. cives imbres
Acc. Pl. cives imbres
Gen. Pl. civium imbrium
Dat. Pl. civibus imbribus
Abl. Pl. civibus imbribus

Decline like civis: m. amnis, river; ignis, fire; f. avis, bird.

Decline like imber: f. linter, boat; m. uter, leathern bottle.

Note 1: Some words have acc. -im, abl. -i: f. tussis, cough; sitis, thirst; most rivers and towns, m. Tiberis, Tiber; f. Neapolis, Naples. Sometimes f. febris, fever; puppis, stern; turris, tower; clavis, key; navis, ship; restis, rope; securis, axe; sementis, sowing. Ignis has usually abl. igni. The acc. plur. is sometimes written -is, which is the older form.

Note 2: Vis, force, is the only long i-stem. It has acc. sing. vim, abl. sing. vi, plur. vires, virium, viribus.

(2) Stems with Nom. Sing. in -es:

Case Nubes
Nom. nubes
Voc. nubes
Acc. nubem
Gen. nubis
Dat. nubi
Abl. nube
Nom. Pl. nubes
Voc. Pl. nubes
Acc. Pl. nubes
Gen. Pl. nubium
Dat. Pl. nubibus
Abl. Pl. nubibus

Decline also: cautes, rock; moles, pile; rupes, crag.

Note: Some have nom. sing. -es or -is: valles or vallis, valley; vulpes or vulpis, fox. Trabs, beam, plebs, the common people, are often found for trabes, plebes. Fames, hunger, has abl. sing. fame.

(3) Stems which have two consonants (a liquid or nasal and a mute) before i, and drop i before the s in the Nom. Sing.:

Declension of Substantives (Pages 21-29)

Stems in Labials

Stems in Labials form Nom. regularly with s.

Stem Nominative Genitive English
ap- wanting dapis, f. banquet
ep-
Ip- princeps, c. principis chief
op- wanting opis, f. help
ep-
up- auceps, m. aucupis fowler

Stems in the Spirant s

Stems in the Spirant s, which, except in vas, becomes r.

Stem Nominative Genitive English
as- vas, n. vasis vessel
aes- aer- aeris copper, bronze
es- er- Cereris Ceres
is- er- cineris cinder
os- or- honoris honour
us- er- operis work
iis- iir- cruris leg

Stems in Liquids

Stem Nominative Genitive English
al- sal, m. salis salt
ell- mel, n. mellis honey
n- mugil, m. mugilis mullet
ol- sol, m. solis sun
ul- consul, m. consulis consul
ar- jubar, n. jubaris sunbeam
arr- far, n. farris flour
er- anser, m. anseris goose
er- ver, n. veris spring
ter- mater, f. matris mother
or- aequor, n. aequoris sea
or- ebur, n. eboris ivory
or- soror, f. sororis sister
ur- vultur, m. vulturis vulture
ur- fur, m. furis thief

Stems in Nasals

Stem Nominative Genitive English
en- nomen, n. nominis name
on- homo, m. hominis man
on- leo, m. leonis lion
ion- ratio, f. rationis reason
rn- caro, f. carnis flesh
an- canis, c. canis dog
en- juvenis, c. juvenis young person
em- hiemps, f. hiemis winter

A. Consonant Stems

(1) Stems in Gutturals: c, g.

Case Judex Radix Rex
Nom. judex radix rex
Voc. judex radix rex
Acc. judicem radicem regem
Gen. judicis radicis regis
Dat. judici radici regi
Abl. judice radice rege
Nom. Pl. judices radices reges
Voc. Pl. judices radices reges
Acc. Pl. judices radices reges
Gen. Pl. judicum radicum regum
Dat. Pl. judicibus radicibus regibus
Abl. Pl. judicibus radicibus regibus

Decline also: f. vox, voc-, voice; c. dux, duc-, leader; m. grex, greg-, flock.

(2) Stems in Dentals: t, d.

Case Miles Pes Caput
Nom. miles pes caput
Voc. miles pes caput
Acc. militem pedem caput
Gen. militis pedis capitis
Dat. militi pedi capiti
Abl. milite pede capite
Nom. Pl. milites pedes capita
Voc. Pl. milites pedes capita
Acc. Pl. milites pedes capita
Gen. Pl. militum pedum capitum
Dat. Pl. militibus pedibus capitibus
Abl. Pl. militibus pedibus capitibus

Decline also: f. virtus, virtut-, virtue; c. seges, seget-, corn; m. lapis, lapid-, stone.

(3) Stems in Labials: p, b.

Case Princeps
Nom. princeps
Voc. princeps
Acc. principem
Gen. principis
Dat. principi
Abl. principe
Nom. Pl. principes
Voc. Pl. principes
Acc. Pl. principes
Gen. Pl. principum
Dat. Pl. principibus
Abl. Pl. principibus

Decline also: c. forceps, forcip-, tongs; m. auceps, aucup-, fowler.

Stems in the Spirant s

Stems in s do not add s in the Nominative Singular, generally they change s into r in the other cases.

Case Flos Opus Crus
Nom. flos opus crus
Voc. flos opus crus
Acc. florem opus crus
Gen. floris operis cruris
Dat. flori operi cruri
Abl. flore opere crure
Nom. Pl. flores opera crura
Voc. Pl. flores opera crura
Acc. Pl. flores opera crura
Gen. Pl. florum operum crurum
Dat. Pl. floribus operibus cruribus
Abl. Pl. floribus operibus cruribus

Decline also: m. honos, honor-, honour; n. tempus, tempor-, time; corpus, corpor-, body; genus, gener-, race; jus, jur-, law.

Note 1: Vas, vas-, a vessel, keeps s in all the cases, and has plural vasa, vasorum, vasis. Os, oss-, n. bone, as, ass-, m., a coin, keep s in all the cases, and have gen. plur. ossium, assium.

Note 2: Honos, colos, colour, and other words changed in later Latin to honor, color, etc., in the nom. sing., with gen. -oris. Arbos, f., changed to arbor, arboris, tree.

Stems in Liquids: l, r

Stems in l, r, do not take s in the Nominative Singular.

Case Consul Amor Pater Aequor
Nom. consul amor pater aequor
Voc. consul amor pater aequor
Acc. consulem amorem patrem aequor
Gen. consulis amoris patris aequoris
Dat. consuli amori patri aequori
Abl. consule amore patre aequore
Nom. Pl. consules amores patres aequora
Voc. Pl. consules amores patres aequora
Acc. Pl. consules amores patres aequora
Gen. Pl. consulum amorum patrum aequorum
Dat. Pl. consulibus amoribus patribus aequoribus
Abl. Pl. consulibus amoribus patribus aequoribus

Decline also: m. sol, sol-, sun; orator, orator-, speaker; career, career-, prison; frater, fratr-, brother; n. ebur, ebor-, ivory.

Stems in Nasals: n, m

Stems ending in n do not take s in the Nominative Singular. Stems in on, om, drop the n.

Case Leo Virgo Nomen
Nom. leo virgo nomen
Voc. leo virgo nomen
Acc. leonem virginem nomen
Gen. leonis virginis nominis
Dat. leoni virgini nomini
Abl. leone virgine nomine
Nom. Pl. leones virgines nomina
Voc. Pl. leones virgines nomina
Acc. Pl. leones virgines nomina
Gen. Pl. leonum virginum nominum
Dat. Pl. leonibus virginibus nominibus
Abl. Pl. leonibus virginibus nominibus

Decline also: m. latro, latron-, robber; f. ratio, ration-, reason; m. ordo, ordin-, order; homo, homin-, man; n. carmen, carmin-, song.

There is only one Stem in m: hiemps, winter; Gen. hiemis, f.

B. I-Stems

(1) Stems with Nom. Sing. in -is, and in -er from stem ri-:

Case Civis Imber
Nom. civis imber
Voc. civis imber
Acc. civem imbrem
Gen. civis imbris
Dat. civi imbri
Abl. cive, -i imbre, -i
Nom. Pl. cives imbres
Voc. Pl. cives imbres
Acc. Pl. cives imbres
Gen. Pl. civium imbrium
Dat. Pl. civibus imbribus
Abl. Pl. civibus imbribus

Decline like civis: m. amnis, river; ignis, fire; f. avis, bird.

Decline like imber: f. linter, boat; m. uter, leathern bottle.

Note 1: Some words have acc. -im, abl. -i: f. tussis, cough; sitis, thirst; most rivers and towns, m. Tiberis, Tiber; f. Neapolis, Naples. Sometimes f. febris, fever; puppis, stern; turris, tower; clavis, key; navis, ship; restis, rope; securis, axe; sementis, sowing. Ignis has usually abl. igni. The acc. plur. is sometimes written -is, which is the older form.

Note 2: Vis, force, is the only long i-stem. It has acc. sing. vim, abl. sing. vi, plur. vires, virium, viribus.

(2) Stems with Nom. Sing. in -es:

Case Nubes
Nom. nubes
Voc. nubes
Acc. nubem
Gen. nubis
Dat. nubi
Abl. nube
Nom. Pl. nubes
Voc. Pl. nubes
Acc. Pl. nubes
Gen. Pl. nubium
Dat. Pl. nubibus
Abl. Pl. nubibus

Decline also: cautes, rock; moles, pile; rupes, crag.

Note: Some have nom. sing. -es or -is: valles or vallis, valley; vulpes or vulpis, fox. Trabs, beam, plebs, the common people, are often found for trabes, plebes. Fames, hunger, has abl. sing. fame.

(3) Stems which have two consonants (a liquid or nasal and a mute) before i, and drop i before the s in the Nom. Sing.:

Case Mons Urbs
Nom. mons urbs
Voc. mons urbs
Acc. montem urbem
Gen. montis urbis
Dat. monti urbi
Abl. monte urbe
Nom. Pl. montes urbes
Voc. Pl. montes urbes
Acc. Pl. montes urbes
Gen. Pl. montium urbium
Dat. Pl. montibus urbibus
Abl. Pl. montibus urbibus

Decline also: f. arx, arc-, citadel; ars, art-, art; stirps, stirp-, stem; frons, front-, forehead; frons, frond-, leaf; m. dens, dent-, tooth.

Neuter Stems with Nom. Sing. in -e, -al, -ar:

These either change i into e in the Nom. Sing. or drop the vowel and shorten the final syllable.

Case Cubile Animal Calcar
Nom. cubile animal calcar
Voc. cubile animal calcar
Acc. cubile animal calcar
Gen. cubilis animalis calcaris
Dat. cubili animali calcari
Abl. cubili animali calcari
Nom. Pl. cubilia animalia calcaria
Voc. Pl. cubilia animalia calcaria
Acc. Pl. cubilia animalia calcaria
Gen. Pl. cubilium animalium calcarium
Dat. Pl. cubilibus animalibus calcaribus
Abl. Pl. cubilibus animalibus calcaribus

Decline also: conclave, room; sedile, seat; rete, net (abl. sing. e); tribunal, tribunal; exemplar, pattern.

Note: Mare, sea, has abl. sing. mari, or more rarely mare; the gen. plur. is only found once: marum. Baccar, an aromatic root, far, flour, jubar, a sunbeam, nectar, nectar, have abl. sing. -e.

The following have exceptional forms:

  1. Juppiter (for Dies-piter) and bos (for bous), ox.

  2. Case Juppiter Bos
    Nom. Juppiter bos
    Voc. Juppiter bos
    Acc. Jovem bovem
    Gen. Jovis bovis
    Dat. Jovi bovi
    Abl. Jove bove
    Nom. Pl. boves
    Voc. Pl. boves
    Acc. Pl. boves
    Gen. Pl. boum
    Dat. Pl. bobus or bubus
    Abl. Pl. bobus or bubus
  3. Two stems in -u, declined like consonant nouns: grus, crane, sus, pig. These are the only uncontracted u- nouns.

  4. Case Grus Sus
    Nom. grus sus
    Voc. grus sus
    Acc. gruem suem
    Gen. gruis suis
    Dat. grui sui
    Abl. grue sue
    Nom. Pl. grues sues
    Voc. Pl. grues sues
    Acc. Pl. grues sues
    Gen. Pl. gruum suum
    Dat. Pl. gruibus suibus (subus)
    Abl. Pl. gruibus suibus (subus)

Iter, journey, has gen. sing. itineris (and rarely iteris). Jecur, liver, jecoris, and jecinoris. Senex, old man, has Sing. Acc. senem, Gen. senis, Dat. seni, Abl. sene; Plur. N. Acc. senes, Gen. senum, Dat. Abl. senibus. Supellex, furniture, forms the other cases from stem supellectili-. Jusjurandum, oath, is declined in both parts: N. V. Acc. jusjurandum; Gen. jurisjurandi; Dat. jurijurando; Abl. jurejurando. No plural. Paterfamilias, materfamilias, father, mother of a family, have pater, mater fully declined in the sing. cases, but familias remains unaltered. The plur. patresfamiliarum is sometimes found.

Note: The locative sing. of the third declension ends in -i or -e; the plural in -ibus: ruri, rure, in the country; vesperi, vespere, in the evening; Carthagini, Carthagine, at Carthage; Gadibus, at Gades (Cadiz).

Gender in Third Declension

Consonant Stems

Masculine are nouns which end in -os, -o (except -do, -go, -io), -or, -er, and Imparisyllabic nouns in -is or -es.

Exceptions:

  • cos, whetstone, dos, dowry, f.; os, ossis, bone, os, oris, mouth, n. echo, echo, caro, flesh, f. arbor, tree, f.; aequor, sea, marmor, marble, cor, heart, n. ver, spring, cadaver, corpse, iter, journey, tuber, hump, uber, udder, verber, lash, n.; also some names of plants, as papaver, poppy. compes, fetter, merces, hire, merges, sheaf, quies, rest, requies, rest, seges, corn, teges, mat, f.

Feminine

Feminine are nouns which end in -x, -as, -ps, -do, -go, -io, and nouns in -is of more than one syllable.

Exceptions:

  • Nouns in -ex are masculine or common, but lex, law, nex, death, forfex, shears, supellex, furniture, ilex, oak, f.

  • calix, cup, fornix, arch, m.; dux, leader, c. as, coin, vas, surety, m.; fas, right, nefas, wrong, vas, vessel, n. manceps, buyer, m.; municeps, burgess, c.; princeps, chief, c. cardo, hinge; ordo, order, m. ligo, hoe, m.; margo, brink, c.

  • Concrete nouns in -io are masculine: pugio, dagger; papilio, butterfly. Abstract nouns in -io are feminine: ratio, reason; regio, region.

Neuter

Neuter are nouns in -us, -is (in words of one syllable), -en, -al, -ar, -ur.

Exceptions:

  • lepus, hare, m.; pecus, pecudis, single head of cattle, f. mus, mouse, m.; grus, crane, sus, pig, c. pecten, comb, ren, kidney, splen, spleen, tibicen, flute-player, m. mugil, mullet, sal, salt, sol, sun, m. lar, god of the hearth, m. furfur, bran, lemur, goblin, turtur, turtle dove, vultur, vulture, m.

  • Praes, bondsman, is masc.; laus, praise, fraus, deceit, are fem.; lac, milk, caput, head, aes, copper, are neuter.

I-Stems

Most Parisyllabic nouns in -is and -es are feminine.

Exceptions:

  • The following nouns in -is are masculine: amnis, river; axis, axle; canalis, canal; caulis, cabbage; clunis, haunch; collis, hill; crinis, hair; ensis, sword; fascis, bundle; follis, bag; fustis, cudgel; ignis, fire; mensis, month; orbis, circle; panis, bread; piscis, fish; postis, post; torris, firebrand; unguis, nail; vectis, lever; vermis, worm; cassis, net; manes, shades (plur.).

  • Generally masculine are callis, path; finis, end; funis, rope; sentis, thorn; torquis, necklace. Acinaces, scimitar, and verres, boar, are masculine.

Nouns in -al, -ar, and -e are neuter. Nouns in -x, -bs, -ls, -ns, -rs are feminine; but fons, fountain, mons, mountain, dens, tooth, bidens, fork, rudens, rope, torrens, torrent, oriens, east, occidens, west, masculine; infans, infant, parens, parent, c.

Fourth Declension

U- Stems (contracted)

The Nominative of masculine and feminine nouns is formed by adding s; neuters have the plain stem with u (long).

Stem: gradus (step, m.) genu (knee, n.)

Singular

Case Gradus Genu
Nom. gradus (a step) genu (a knee)
Voc. gradus (o step) genu (o knee)
Acc. gradum (a step) genu (a knee)
Gen. gradus (of a step) genus (of a knee)
Dat. gradui (to a step) genu (to a knee)
Abl. gradu (from a step) genu (from a knee)

Plural

Case Gradus Genua
Nom. gradus (steps) genua (knees)
Voc. gradus (o steps) genua (o knees)
Acc. gradus (steps) genua (knees)
Gen. graduum (of steps) genuum (of knees)
Dat. gradibus (to steps) genibus (to knees)
Abl. gradibus (from steps) genibus (from knees)

Decline like gradus: m. fructus, fruit; senatus, senate; f. manus, hand.

Decline like genu: cornu, horn; veru, spit (dat. abl. plur., -ibus or -ubus).

Feminine nouns of this declension, besides manus, are: acus, needle; porticus, porch; tribus, tribe; Idus, Ides, and words feminine by meaning. Neuters are: genu, cornu, veru.

Note 1: The dat. sing. -ui is sometimes contracted into -u. The dat. and abl. plur. -ubus is generally changed into -ibus; but acus, tribus, arcus (bow), lacus (lake), partus (birth), and artus (plur.), limbs, have always -ibus; portus (harbour), has -ibus or -ubus.

Note 2: Some nouns have forms of both u- and o- Stems, especially names of trees: laurus, bay; myrtus, myrtle. Colus, distaff, has Gen. -i and -us, Abl. -o and -u, Acc. pl. -os and -us.

Declension of domus (f.)

Case Singular Plural
Nom. domus domus
Voc. domus domus
Acc. domum domos
Gen. domus domorum or domuum
Dat. domui or domo domibus
Abl. domo domibus

The locative domi, at home, is often used.

31. Fifth Declension

E- Stems

The Nominative Singular is formed by adding s to the Stem.

Stem: re- (thing)

Singular

Case Res
Nom. res (a thing)
Voc. res (o thing)
Acc. rem (a thing)
Gen. rei (of a thing)
Dat. rei (to a thing)
Abl. re (from a thing)

Plural

Case Res
Nom. res (things)
Voc. res (o things)
Acc. res (things)
Gen. rerum (of things)
Dat. rebus (to things)
Abl. rebus (from things)

Decline like res: dies, day (gen. dat., diei); acies, line of battle; facies, face; series, series; species, form; spes, hope; fides, faith; glacies, ice; meridies, noon.

Res and dies are the only nouns which occur in the Gen., Dat., and Abl. Plural. Fides, meridies, are Singular only.

All nouns of this declension are feminine except dies and meridies. Dies also is feminine when it means ‘an appointed day’ or ‘a period of time.’

Note 1: The greater number of nouns of this declension were originally ia- Stems, and have forms both of e- and a- Stems. They are declined like materies, matter, singular only.

Case Materia- Materie-
Nom. materia materies
Voc. materia materies
Acc. materiam materiem
Gen. materiae materiei
Dat. materiae materiei
Abl. materia materie

Note 2: The contracted gen. and dat. sing. in -e, as fide for fidei, is found in Virgil and Horace. An old gen. in -i occurs in tribunus plebi, tribune of the people. The locative ends in -e.

Note 3: Respublica, the public interest, the republic, the State, is declined in both its parts: Sing. Acc. rempublicam, Gen. reipublicae, Dat. reipublicae, Abl. republica. Plur. Nom. respublicae, Acc. respublicas, Gen. rerumpublicarum, Dat. Abl. rebuspublicis.

32. Defective and Variable Substantives

Many nouns are found only in the Singular; these are chiefly proper names and words of general meaning:

  • humus, ground

  • justitia, justice

  • laetitia, joy

  • ver, spring

  • letum, death

  • saeculum, an age

  • aurum, gold

  • argentum, silver

  • caelum, heaven

Note: In poetry some words take plural form with singular meaning: mella, honey; nives, snow; silentia, silence; rura, country.

Many nouns are used only in the Plural:

  • arma, arms

  • artus, limbs

  • cunae, cradle

  • divitiae, riches

  • fasti, annals

  • feriae, holidays

  • indutiae, truce

  • insidiae, ambush

  • liberi, children

  • manes, departed spirits

  • moenia, town walls

  • nugae, trifles

  • penates, household gods

  • tenebrae, darkness

And names of towns, days, festivals: Athenae, Delphi, Kalendae (Calends); Bacchanalia, festival of Bacchus.

Some words have a different meaning in Singular and Plural:

Singular Plural
aedes, temple aedes, house
auxilium, help auxilia, allied forces
castrum, fort castra, camp
cera, wax cerae, waxen tablets
copia, plenty copiae, forces
finis, end fines, boundaries
gratia, favour gratiae, thanks
impedimentum, hindrance impedimenta, baggage
littera, letter of the alphabet litterae, epistle, literature
ludus, play ludi, public games
opes, help opera, work-people
sal, salt sales, wit

62. Some nouns have two or more forms of Declension:

Noun Genitive Meaning
tergum, -i, n. tergus, -oris, n. back
pecus, -oris, n. pecus, -udis, f. a single head of cattle
eventum, -i, n. eventus, -us, m. event
plebs, -is, f. plebes, -ei, f. the common people
Noun Genitive Meaning
jugerum, -i, n. juger, -is, n. acre
vespera, -ae, f. vesper, -i, -o, m. evening

Quies, f., rest, -etis, is a t-Stem only; but its compound requies takes also the e- forms: requiem, requie.

63. Some o- Stems vary between masc. and neut. in Sing. or Plur.:

  • baculus, m., baculum, n., a stick

  • pileus, m., pileum, n., a hat

  • locus, m., place, loca, n., places

  • jocus, m., jest, joca, n., jests

  • frenum, n., bit, frena, n., bits

  • rastrum, n., rake, rastra, n., rakes

64. In many nouns some of the cases are wanting:

Noun Acc. Gen. Dat. Abl.
feast, f. dapem dapis dapi dape
fruit, f. frugem frugis frugi fruge
help, f. opem opis opi ope
prayer, f. precem precis preci prece
change, f. vicem vicis vici vice

These have full plural -es, -um, -ibus, except Gen. vicium.

65. Many are used in the Abl. Sing. only:

  • coactu, by force

  • concessu, by permission

  • (diu) interdiu, by day

  • jussu, by command

  • injussu, without command

  • natu, by birth

  • noctu, by night

  • rogatu, by request

  • sponte, by choice

66. Some have only Nom. Acc. S.:

  • fas, right

  • nefas, wrong

  • instar, likeness, size

  • opus, need

  • nihil, nothing

67. Declension of Greek Nouns

First Declension, a- Stems

At an early time many Greek nouns were used in Latin, in an almost or entirely Latin form. Masc. nouns ending in -as, -es, and fem. nouns in -a, -e, all alike took the ending -a in the nom., and were declined throughout like mensa. Such words are nauta, sailor; poeta, poet.

Afterwards the Greek forms, especially of proper names, were brought in by the poets, and thus in many instances both Greek and Latin forms of the same words are found, while of some words, used chiefly in poetry, the Greek forms alone occur.

Patronymics (race-names) are usually in the Greek form, as Atrides (son of Atreus), Pelides (son of Peleus); and though they sometimes have -a for -es in the nom. they always retain the Greek acc. in -en.

Names of people ending in -ates, -ites, or -otes, as Eleiites (inhabitant of Elea), generally have -em or -am in acc., being nearer to Latin words.

All these usually follow the Latin declension in the plural, even when they have the Greek form in the singular.

Masculine nouns in -as, -es, and Feminine nouns in -e

Case Aeneas Atrides Cybele
Nom. Aeneas Atrides, -a Cybele, a
Voc. Aenea Atride, -a Cybele, -a
Acc. Aenean Atriden Cybelen
Gen. Aeneae Atridae Cybele, -ae
Dat. Aeneae Atridae Cybelae
Abl. Aenea Atride, -a Cybele, -a

Plural in all cases like that of mensa.

Decline also: Boreas, the north wind; Persa (-es), a Persian; Epirus (-ota), native of Epirus; Helene, f.

68. Second Declension, o- Stems

Greek nouns of the Second Declension, especially names of persons and places, often keep their Greek forms in the nom. and acc., but the other cases generally take the Latin forms.

Case Delos Athos Pelion
Nom. Delos, f. Athos, m. Pelion, n.
Voc. (Dele) (Athos) (Pelion)
Acc. Delon, -um Athon Pelion
Gen. Deli Atho Peli
Dat., Abl. Delo Atho Pelo

The fem. words of this Declension are chiefly names of towns, islands, plants, and precious stones.

Nouns ending in -ros sometimes take the Latin ending -er in the nom., as Evander (-dros).

Decline also: scorpios, m., scorpion; lotos, f., lotus; Samos, Ilion.

The Greek plural forms are rare, but plural nom. in -oe, as Canephorae, and plur. gen. in -on, as Bucolicon, are sometimes found.

69. Third Declension

Consonant Stems and Stems in e, i, o, eu, y. These nouns are very numerous, having many different endings in the Nom. Sing.

Singular

Case Heros Lynx
Nom., Voc. heros, m., hero lynx, c., lynx
Acc. hero-a, -em lync-em, -a
Gen. herois lyncis
Dat. heroi lynci
Abl. heroe lynce

Plural

Case Heros Lynx
Nom., Voc. heroes lynces
Acc. heroas lyncas, -es
Gen. heroum lyncum
Dat., Abl. heroibus lyncibus

Decline also: f. lampas, gen. lampadis, torch; m. gigas, gigantis, giant; aer, aeris, air; aether, aetheris, the upper air.

Names of this class are found in different forms, from the tendency to latinise Greek words. Thus Perseus is called Perseus by Livy, but by Cicero latinised to Perses in the nom., with the other cases like Greek names of the First Declension, as Atrides.

71. Declension of Adjectives

Adjectives are declined by Gender, Number and Case.

A. Adjectives of three endings in -us, -a, -um or -er, -a, -um

These are declined like Substantives of the Second and First Declension, O- and A- Stems.

Stem: bono- (good)

Singular

Case M. F. N.
Nom. bonus bona bonum
Voc. bone bona bonum
Acc. bonum bonam bonum
Gen. boni bonae boni
Dat. bono bonae bono
Abl. bono bona bono

Plural

Case M. F. N.
Nom. boni bonae bona
Voc. boni bonae bona
Acc. bonos bonas bona
Gen. bonorum bonarum bonorum
Dat., Abl. bonis bonis bonis

Decline also: carus, dear; durus, hard; malus, bad; magnus, great; parvus, small; dubius, doubtful.

Stem: tenero- (tender)

Singular

Case M. F. N.
Nom. tener tenera tenerum
Voc. tener tenera tenerum
Acc. tenerum teneram tenerum
Gen. teneri tenerae teneri
Dat. tenero tenerae tenero
Abl. tenero tenera tenero

Plural

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. teneri tenera tenera
Acc. teneros teneras tenera
Gen. tenerorum tenerarum tenerorum
Dat., Abl. teneris teneris teneris

Decline also: asper, rough; lacer, torn; liber, free; miser, wretched; prosper, prosperous; frugifer, fruit-bearing; plumiger, feathered; and other compounds of fero and gero; also satur, full; satura, saturum.

Stem: nigro- (black)

Singular

Case M. F. N.
Nom. niger nigra nigrum
Voc. niger nigra nigrum
Acc. nigrum nigram nigrum
Gen. nigri nigrae nigri
Dat. nigro nigrae nigro
Abl. nigro nigra nigro

Plural

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. nigri nigrae nigra
Acc. nigros nigras nigra
Gen. nigrorum nigrarum nigrorum
Dat., Abl. nigris nigris nigris

Decline also: aeger, sick; ater, jet-black; pulcher, beautiful; ruber, red; sacer, sacred.

Note: Dexter, on the right hand, may be declined like tener or like niger.

B. Adjectives of two endings and of one ending in the Nominative Singular are declined like Substantives of the Third Declension.

(1) Adjectives with Nominative Singular in -is, Masc. and Fem.; in -e Neuter: I- Stems.

Stem: tristi- (sad)

Singular

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. tristis triste
Acc. tristem triste
Gen. tristis tristis
Dat., Abl. tristi tristi

Plural

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. tristes tristia
Acc. tristes, -is tristia
Gen. tristium tristium
Dat., Abl. tristibus tristibus

Decline also: brevis, short; omnis, all; aequalis, equal; hostilis, hostile; facilis, easy; illustris, illustrious; lugubris, mournful.

Some stems in ri- form the Masc. Nom. Sing. in -er:

Stem: acri- (keen)

Singular

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. acer acris acre
Acc. acrem acrem acre
Gen. acris acris acris
Dat., Abl. acri acri acri

Plural

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. acres acres acria
Acc. acres, -is acres, -is acria
Gen. acrium acrium acrium
Dat., Abl. acribus acribus acribus

Decline like acer the following: celeber, famous; saluber, healthy; alacer, brisk; volucris, winged; campester, level; equester, equestrian; pedester, pedestrian; paluster, marshy; puter, crumbling; with September, October, November, December, masculine only.

Note: In celer, celeris, celere, swift, the Stem ends in -eri- and the e is kept throughout.

74. Declension of Adjectives

(2) Adjectives with Nom. Sing. the same for all genders:

(a) I- Stems

Stem: felici- (happy)

Singular

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. felix felix
Acc. felicem felix
Gen. felicis felicis
Dat., Abl. felici felici

Plural

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. felices felicia
Acc. felices, -is felicia
Gen. felicium felicium
Dat., Abl. felicibus felicibus

Stem: ingenti- (huge)

Singular

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. ingens ingens
Acc. ingentem ingens
Gen. ingentis ingentis
Dat., Abl. ingenti ingenti

Plural

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. ingentes ingentia
Acc. ingentes, -is ingentia
Gen. ingentium ingentium
Dat., Abl. ingentibus ingentibus

Decline also: audax, audaci-, bold; simplex, simplici-, simple; duplex, duplici-, double; velox, veloci-, swift; amans, amanti-, loving; sapiens, sapienti-, wise; concors, concordi-, agreeing; par, pari-, like.

Note 1: Some adjectives with stems in -t have genitive plural in -um as well as -ium: recens, recentum or recentium; consors, consortum or consortium. In Participles, however, the gen. plur. is almost always in -ium.

Note 2: The abl. sing. generally ends in -i when an adjective is used with a substantive: a milite vigili, by a watchful soldier; and in -e when an adjective stands for a substantive: a vigile, by a watchman, but a few have abl. sing. always in -i. The same rule applies to present participles; but in the ablative absolute construction the ablative always ends in -e: viridanti quercu cinctus, wreathed with green oak; viridante quercu, when the oak is green.

(b) Consonant Stems

Stem: diviti- (rich)

Singular

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. dives dives
Acc. divitem dives
Gen. divitis divitis
Dat. diviti diviti
Abl. divite divite

Plural

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. divites divitia
Acc. divites divitia
Gen. divitum divitum
Dat., Abl. divitibus divitibus

Decline like dives: pauper, pauper-, poor; degener, degener-, degenerate; sospes, sospit-, safe; superstes, superstit-, surviving; deses, desid-, slothful; compos, compot-, possessing; caelebs, caelib-, unmarried; vetus, veter-, old.

Note: Dives has a contracted form dis, acc. ditem, etc.; with abl. sing. diti and neut. plur. ditia; gen. plur. ditium. Dives and vetus are used as neut. acc. sing. Vetus has neut. plur. vetera. The rest have no neuter forms.

76. Comparison of Adjectives

Adjectives are compared in three degrees:

  • Positive: durus, hard; tristis, sad.

  • Comparative: durior, harder; tristior, sadder.

  • Superlative: durissimus, hardest; tristissimus, saddest.

The Positive is the adjective itself expressing the quality; the Comparative expresses a greater degree; the Superlative expresses a very great, or the greatest, degree of the quality.

The Comparative is formed from the Positive by adding the suffix -ior to the last consonant of the Stem; the Superlative generally by adding -issimus to the last consonant of the Stem.

Stem Positive Comparative Superlative
dur-o- durus durior durissimus
trist-i- tristis tristior tristissimus
audac-i- audax, bold audacior audacissimus

77. The Comparative is declined as follows:

Singular

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. tristior tristius
Acc. tristiorem tristius
Gen. tristioris tristioris
Dat. tristiori tristiori
Abl. tristior-e, -i tristior-e, -i

Plural

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc. tristiores tristiora
Acc. tristior-es tristiora
Gen. tristiorum tristiorum
Dat., Abl. tristioribus tristioribus

Note: The Ablative in -i of the Comparative is rare, and only used by late writers.

78. The Superlative is declined from o- and a- Stems, like bonus.

Adjectives with Stems in ro-, ri-, form the Superlative by doubling the last consonant of the Stem and adding -imus. Words like niger insert e before r in the Superlative.

Stem Positive Comparative Superlative
tenero- tener tenerior tenerrimus
nigro- niger nigrior nigerrimus
celeri- celer celerior celerrimus

Six adjectives with Stems in ill- also form the Superlative by doubling the last consonant of the Stem and adding -imus:

  • facilis, easy

  • difficilis, difficult

  • similis, like

  • dissimilis, unlike

  • gracilis, slender

  • humilis, lowly

79. Many Participles are compared like adjectives:

  • amans, loving

  • paratus, ready

Comparative: amantior; paratior

Superlative: amantissimus; paratissimus

80. Irregular Comparison

(1) Some Comparatives and Superlatives are formed from Stems distinct from that of the Positive:

Positive Comparative Superlative
bonus, good melior, better optimus, best
malus, bad pejor, worse pessimus, worst
parvus, small minor, less minimus, least
multus, much plus, more plurimus, most
magnus, great major, greater maximus, greatest
nequam (indecl.), wicked nequior, more wicked nequissimus, most wicked
frugi (indecl.), honest frugalior, more honest frugalissimus, most honest
senex, old senior, older maximus natu, oldest
juvenis, young junior, younger minimus natu, youngest

Note 1: Senior, junior are not used as true comparatives of senex, juvenis, but with the meaning old rather than young, and young rather than old.

Note 2: Dives has both uncontracted and contracted forms: dives (rich), divitior, divitissimus or dis, ditior, ditissimus. Vetus (old) has vetustior, veterrimus (sometimes vetustior).

81. Comparison of Adjectives

Plus in the Singular is neuter only:

Singular

Case N.
Nom., Voc., Acc. plus
Gen. pluris
Dat., Abl. pluri

Plural

Case M. F. N.
Nom., Voc., Acc. plures plura
Gen. plurium plurium
Dat., Abl. pluribus pluribus

82. Adjectives compounded with -dicus, -ficus, -volus (from dico, facio, volo), form the Comparative and Superlative as if from participles in -ens.

Positive Comparative Superlative
maledicus, evil-speaking maledicentior maledicentissimus
beneficus, beneficent beneficentior beneficentissimus
benevolus, well-wishing benevolentior benevolentissimus
egenus, needy egentior egentissimus
providus, provident providentior providentissimus

83. Adjectives in -eus, -ius, -uus are generally compared with the adverbs magis, maxime

dubius, doubtful; magis dubius, more doubtful; maxime dubius, most doubtful.

Note: Adjectives in -quus are compared regularly, the first u being consonantal: aequus, level; aequior, more level; aequissimus, most level; so, antiquus, ancient. Egregius, excellent, has comparative egregior; strenuus, vigorous, sometimes has strenuior.

91. Pronouns

Pronouns either stand in the place of Substantives or stand in the place of Adjectives, to define or point out Substantives.

92. There are three Persons:

  • First: The person speaking: I or we.

  • Second: The person spoken to: thou or ye (you).

  • Third: The person or thing spoken of: he, she, it, they.

Personal Pronouns stand only in place of Substantives. Possessive Pronouns, as meus, my, stand only for Adjectives. Most of the others can stand for Substantives or Adjectives.

93. Personal and Reflexive

Singular

1st Person 2nd Person
Nom. ego, I. Nom. tu, thou (so also Voc.)
Acc. me, me. Acc. te, thee.
Gen. mei, of me. Gen. tui, of thee.
Dat. mihi, to me. Dat. tibi, to thee.
Abl. me, from me. Abl. te, from thee.

Plural

1st Person 2nd Person
Nom. nos, we. Nom. vos, ye (so also Voc.)
Acc. nos, us. Acc. vos, you.
Gen. nostri/nostrum, of us. Gen. vestri/vestrum, of you.
Dat. nobis, to us. Dat. vobis, to you.
Abl. nobis, from us. Abl. vobis, from you.

Reflexive Pronoun

Nom. –
Acc. se or sese, himself, herself, itself, or themselves.
Gen. sui, of himself, etc.
Dat. sibi, to himself, etc.
Abl. se or sese, from himself, etc.

For the Personal Pronoun of the 3rd Person, he, she, it, the Demonstrative is, ea, id is used.

Note: Nostri, vestri, are called Objective Genitives: memor nostri, mindful of us (264). Nostrum, vestrum, are called Partitive Genitives, because they are used after words which express a part: unus nostrum, one of us (259).

94. Possessive

Singular

  • 1st Person: meus, mea, meum, my.

  • 2nd Person: tuus, tua, tuum, thy.

Plural

  • 1st Person: noster, nostra, nostrum, our.

  • 2nd Person: vester, vestra, vestrum, your.

Suus, sua, suum, his, her, its, their, is the Possessive Pronoun of the Reflexive.

Note: Meus, tuus, suus are declined like bonus: noster, vester, like niger. Meus has voc. sing. masc. mi. The other possessives, except noster, have no vocative.

95. Demonstrative

Is, that, or he, she, it

Singular Plural
M. F. N. M. F. N.
Nom. is ea id ii or ei eae ea
Acc. eum eam id eos eas ea
Gen. eius eius eius eorum earum eorum
Dat. ei ei ei iis (eis) iis (eis) iis (eis)
Abl. eo ea eo iis (eis) iis (eis) iis (eis)

Hic, this (near me), or he, she, it

Singular Plural
M. F. N. M. F. N.
Nom. hic haec hoc hi hae haec
Acc. hunc hanc hoc hos has haec
Gen. huius huius huius horum harum horum
Dat. huic huic huic his his his
Abl. hoc hac hoc his his his

Ille, that (yonder), or he, she, it

Singular Plural
M. F. N. M. F. N.
Nom. ille illa illud illi illae illa
Acc. illum illam illud illos illas illa
Gen. illius illius illius illorum illarum illorum
Dat. illi illi illi illis illis illis
Abl. illo illa illo illis illis illis

Iste, that (near you), is declined like ille.

98. Definitive

Idem, same

Singular Plural
M. F. N. M. F. N.
Nom. idem eadem idem eidem or idem eaedem eadem
Acc. eundem eandem idem eosdem easdem eadem
Gen. eiusdem eiusdem eiusdem eorundem earundem eorundem
Dat. eidem eidem eidem iisdem (isdem) iisdem (isdem) iisdem (isdem)
Abl. eodem eadem eodem iisdem (isdem) iisdem (isdem) iisdem (isdem)

Ipse, self

Singular Plural
M. F. N. M. F. N.
Nom. ipse ipsa ipsum ipsi ipsae ipsa
Acc. ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsos ipsas ipsa
Gen. ipsius ipsius ipsius ipsorum ipsarum ipsorum
Dat. ipsi ipsi ipsi ipsis ipsis ipsis
Abl. ipso ipsa ipso ipsis ipsis ipsis

Note: The suffixes -met, -te, -pte or -pse, -ce are added to some cases of pronouns for emphasis:

  • (a) met may be joined (1) to ego and its cases, except gen. plur.: egomet, I myself; (2) to the cases of tu, except nom. sing.: vosmet, ye yourselves; (3) to se and its cases, except sui: sibimet; (4) to the cases of suus: suamet facta.

  • (b) te is joined to tu: tute; also tutemet, thou thyself.

  • (c) pte is joined especially to the abl. sing. of the possessive pronouns: meopte consilio, by my advice.

  • (d) ce is joined to the demonstrative: hunce, huiusce. For istece, illece, are written istic, illic:

Nom. istic istaec istuc
Acc. istunc istanc istuc
Gen. istiusce istiusce istiusce
Abl. istoc istac istoc

Idem (for is-dem), and ipse (for is-pse), are emphatic forms of is.

99. Relative

Qui, who, which

Singular Plural
M. F. N. M. F. N.
Nom. qui quae quod qui quae quae
Acc. quem quam quod quos quas quae
Gen. cuius cuius cuius quorum quarum quorum
Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Abl. quo qua quo quibus quibus quibus

100. Interrogative

Quis, who? what?

Singular Plural
M. F. N. M. F. N.
Nom. quis quis quid qui quae quae
Acc. quem quem quid quos quas quae
Gen. cuius cuius cuius quorum quarum quorum
Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Abl. quo qua quo quibus quibus quibus

In all other cases singular and plural quis Interrogative is like the Relative.

101. Indefinite

Quis, anyone or anything

Singular Plural
M. F. N. M. F. N.
Nom. quis qua quid qui quae quae
Acc. quem quam quid quos quas quae
Gen. cuius cuius cuius quorum quarum quorum
Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Abl. quo qua quo quibus quibus quibus

In the other cases singular and plural the Indefinite is like the Relative, except that qua or quae may be used in neut. nom. and acc. plural.

Quis, both Interrogative and Indefinite, and its compounds, are used chiefly as Substantives; qui and its compounds chiefly as Adjectives. Quid and its compounds are used only as Substantives; quod and its compounds only as Adjectives.

Examples:

  • Homo qui venit, The man who comes. (qui, relative.)

  • Quis venit?, Who comes? (quis, interrogative.)

  • Qui homo venit?, What man comes? (qui, interrogative.)

  • Aliquid amari, Some bitterness.

  • Aliquod verbum, Some word.

102. Compound Pronouns

Masc. Fem. Neut. Translation
quicumque quaecumque quodcumque whosoever, whatsoever
quisquis quisquis quidquid or quicquid whosoever, whatsoever
quidam quaedam quiddam (or quoddam) a certain person or thing
aliquis aliqua aliquid someone, something
quispiam quaepiam quippiam (or quodpiam) someone
quivis quaevis quidvis (or quodvis) anyone you like
quilibet quaelibet quidlibet (or quodlibet) anyone you like
quisquam quisquam quidquam (or quicquam) anyone at all
quisque quaeque quidque (or quodque) each one severally
uterque utraque utrumque each of two
unusquisque unaquaeque unumquique (or unumquodque) each single one
ecquis ecqua ecquid (or ecquod) Is there anyone who?
quisnam quaenam quidnam (or quodnam) Who, pray?

Note 1: Quisquis is found only in nom. acc. and abl.

Note 2: Quisquam is used as a substantive, sing. only, chiefly in negative sentences and the adjective which corresponds to it is ullus: haud quisquam, not anyone.

Note 3: In the Compound Pronouns qui, quis, and uter follow their own declension in the oblique cases; the prefix or suffix is unaltered: alicuius, cuiusque, cuivis, utroque, quamlibet. In unusquisque both unus and quisque are declined.

103. The following Pronominal Adjectives form the Gen. Sing. in -ius and the Dat. Sing. in -i like ille:

  • alius, other, another;

  • ullus, any;

  • nullus, none;

  • solus, sole;

  • totus, whole;

  • uter, which of two;

  • alter, one of two, the other;

  • neuter, neither.

Singular Plural
M. F. N. M. F. N.
Nom. alius alia aliud alii aliae alia
Acc. alium aliam aliud alios alias alia
Gen. alius aliius aliius aliorum aliarum aliorum
Dat. alii alii alii aliis aliis aliis
Abl. alio alia alio aliis aliis aliis

Note: In alius the i of the Gen. Sing. is always long. In the Gen. of words declined like it the quantity of the i is doubtful; also in the Gen. of uter, neuter.

Like alius, but with Neuter Singular in -um, are declined ullus, nullus, solus, totus.

Singular Plural
M. F. N. M. F. N.
Nom. alter altera alterum alteri alterae altera
Acc. alterum alteram alterum alteros alteras altera
Gen. alterius alterius alterius alterorum alterarum alterorum
Dat. alteri alteri alteri alteris alteris alteris
Abl. altero altera altero alteris alteris alteris

Like alter, but casting out e before r in all cases except the Nom. Sing. Masculine, are declined:

uter, utra, utrum, which (of two); neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither. These are seldom used in the plural.

Note 1: Uter forms compounds by taking nearly all the same suffixes as quis and qui: utercumque, whichever of two; utervis, uterlibet. Alteruter, one or the other, is usually declined only as uter, but sometimes both parts are declined.

Note 2: The genitive and ablative singular of nullus are used for the genitive and ablative of the substantive nemo, nobody, which are very rarely found.

104. Table of Correlative Pronouns and Adverbs

Interrogative Demonstrative Relative Indefinite (1) Universal Relative Distributive Indefinite (2)
quis, qui, who? is, that qui, who, which (si) quis, if any quicumque, whosoever quisque, each aliquis, someone
uter, which of two? alter, one of two utercumque, whichever of two utervis, whichever of two utercumque, whichever of two uterque, each of two uterque, each of two
qualis, of what kind? talis, of such kind qualis, as aliquantus, some (in quantity) qualiscumque, of what kind soever aliquantus, some (in quantity) qualiscumque, of what kind soever
quantus, how great? tantus, so great quantus, as (great) aliquantus, some (in quantity) quantuscumque, however great aliquantus, some (in quantity) quantuscumque, however great
quot, how many? tot, so many quot, as (many) aliquot, some (in number) quotcumque, however many aliquot, some (in number) quotcumque, however many
ubi, where? ibi, there ubi, where alicubi, somewhere ubicumque, wheresoever ubique, everywhere alicubi, somewhere
unde, whence? inde, thence unde, whence alicunde, from somewhere undecumque, whencesoever undique, from everywhere alicunde, from somewhere
quo, whither? eo, thither quo, whither aliquo, to somewhere quocumque, whithersoever aliquo, to somewhere quocumque, whithersoever
qua, by what way? ea, by that way qua, by what way aliqua, by some way quacumque, by whatsoever way aliqua, by some way quacumque, by whatsoever way
quam, how? tam, so quam, as aliquantum, somewhat qualiscumque, of what kind soever qualiscumque, of what kind soever qualiscumque, of what kind soever
quando, when? tum, then quando, when aliquando, at some time quandocumque, whensoever aliquando, at some time quandocumque, whensoever
quotiens, how often? totiens, so often quotiens, as often aliquotiens, at some (various) times quotienscumque, however often aliquotiens, at some (various) times quotienscumque, however often

105. The Verb has:

  • The Three Persons – First, Second, Third.

  • The Two Numbers – Singular and Plural.

  • Six Tenses:

    1. Present

    2. Future Simple

    3. Past Imperfect

    4. Perfect or Aorist

    5. Future Perfect

    6. Pluperfect

  • Three Moods:

    1. Indicative

    2. Imperative

    3. Conjunctive

  • The Infinitive (Verbal Substantive).

  • Three Participles (Verbal Adjectives).

  • The Gerund and Gerundive (Verbal Substantive and Adjective).

  • Two Supines (Verbal Substantives).

  • Two Voices:

    1. Active

    2. Passive

The Verb Finite is so called because it is limited by Mood and Persons; while the Verb Infinite is not so limited.

106. Person and Number

In English, Pronouns are used with Verbs to express the three Persons Singular and Plural: I am, We are. But in Latin the Pronouns are expressed by the personal suffixes.

  • su-m, I am, am-o, I love.

  • e-s, thou art (you are).

  • es-t, he (she, it) is.

  • su-mus, we are.

  • es-tis, ye are.

  • su-nt, they are.

107. Table of Personal Endings in the Indicative and Conjunctive Moods

Active Voice Passive Voice
Singular Singular
1 -m or -o 1 -r
2 -s 2 -ris or -re
3 -t 3 -tur
Plural Plural
1 -mus 1 -mur
2 -tis 2 -mini
3 -nt 3 -ntur

The Imperative Mood has only the Second and Third Person Singular and Plural, not the First.

108. Tenses

Tenses express the time of the action or state denoted by the Verb, as being:

  • Present, Past, or Future;

  • Complete or Incomplete;

  • Momentary or Continuous.

In English, by means of auxiliary Verbs, differences of time can be more accurately expressed than in Latin; so that one tense in Latin may correspond to two tenses in English, of which one is momentary, the other continuous. Thus, rogo, I ask, has the following tenses:

Latin English
Present incomplete rogo I ask, I am asking
Perfect complete rogavi I have asked, I have been asking
Future Simple incomplete rogabo I shall ask, I shall be asking
Future Perfect complete rogavero I shall have asked, I shall have been asking
Imperfect incomplete rogabam I asked, I was asking
Pluperfect complete rogaveram I had asked, I had been asking

Note: Latin has no separate tenses corresponding to the Greek Aorist and Perfect; therefore the Perfect has to fill the place of two Tenses: the Aorist, I loved, and the Perfect, I have loved.

109. The Present, the Future Simple, and the Future Perfect are called Primary Tenses.

The Imperfect and the Pluperfect are called Historic Tenses.

The Perfect in the sense of I have loved is Primary; in the sense of I loved it is Historic.

110. Mood

Moods are the forms in which the idea contained in the Verb is presented.

The Indicative is the mood which states a fact: amo, I love.

The Imperative is the mood of command: ama, love thou.

Note: The forms of the Imperative in -to, -tote, are emphatic, and were used anciently in laws.

The Conjunctive is the mood which represents something as thought of or as dependent: ut amem, that I may love; si amarem, if I were to love.

Note: In the Paradigms the tenses of the Conjunctive are given without any English translation, because their meaning varies so much according to the context that it is impossible to convey it by any one rendering.

107. The Verb Infinite

The Infinitive is a Verb Noun expressing action or state in general, without limit of person or number: amare, to love.

The Gerund is a Verbal Substantive declined like neuters of the Second Declension. It supplies Cases to the Infinitive; as amandi, of loving.

The Gerundive is a Participle, or Verbal Adjective: amandus, a, um, meet to be loved.

The Supines are Cases of a Verbal Substantive: amatum, in order to love; amatu, for or in loving.

The Participles are so called because they have partly the properties of Verbs and partly those of Adjectives; there are three besides the Gerundive:

  • Act. Pres. amans, loving (declined like ingens).

  • Act. Fut. amaturus, about to love (declined like bonus).

  • Pass. Perf. amatus, loved.

Note: The three Participles wanting are: (a) Active Perfect, (b) Passive Present, (c) Passive Future.

108. Voice

The Active Voice expresses what the Subject of a Verb is or does:

  • sum, I am; valeo, I am well; amo, I love; rego, I rule.

The Passive Voice expresses what is done to the Subject of the Verb:

  • amor, I am loved; regor, I am ruled.

109. Deponent Verbs

Deponent Verbs are Verbs which have chiefly the forms of the Passive Voice with the meaning of the Active Voice.

110. Verbs in the Active Voice and Deponent Verbs are

  • (a) Transitive (transire, pass over), acting on an object: amo eum, I love him; hortor vos, I exhort you.

  • (b) Intransitive, not acting on an object: sto, I stand; loquor, I speak.

Only Transitive Verbs have the full Passive Voice.

111. The Conjugations

Verbs are generally arranged according to the Character of the Present Stem in four Conjugations.

The Character is most clearly seen before the suffix -re (or -ere) of the Infinitive Present Active. It is either one of the vowels a, e, i, u, or a Consonant.

  • First Conjugation, A- Stems.

  • Second Conjugation, E- Stems.

  • Third Conjugation, Consonant and U- Stems.

  • Fourth Conjugation, I- Stems.

Deponent Verbs are also divided into four Conjugations with the same Stem endings.

112. The following forms must be known in order to give the full Conjugation.

A- Stems E- Stems Consonant and U- Stems I- Stems
Active Voice
1 Pers. Pres. Indic. amo moneo rego audio
Infin. Pres. amare monere regere audire
Perfect amavi monui rexi audivi
Supine in -um amatum monitum rectum auditum
Passive Voice
1 Pers. Pres. Indic. amor moneor regor audior
Infin. Pres. amari moneri regi audiri
Partic. Perf. amatus monitus rectus auditus
Gerundive amandus monendus regendus audiendus

113. In the Perfects -avi, -evi, -ovi, v sometimes drops out before -is or -er, and contraction follows: amavisti becomes amasti, amaverunt becomes amarunt, amavissem becomes amassem.

In I- Stems there is no contraction: audivi becomes audii, audiverunt becomes audierunt.

For -erunt (3rd pers. pl. Perf. Act.), -ere is often written: amavere, implevere, audivere; but these forms are not contracted.

The 2nd pers. sing. in the Passive ends in -ris or -re: amabaris, amabare; but in Pres. Indic. the ending in -re is rare.

Note: An old form in -ier of the Pres. Infin. Passive is sometimes found in poetry: amarier for amari.

Poets sometimes use old forms in the Future of I- Stems; as audibo, audibor, for audiam, audiar.

The Gerundive sometimes ends in -undus in Consonant and I- Stems.

114. Periphrastic Conjugation

The Active Future Participle and the Gerundive may be used with all the Tenses of the Verb sum:

  • amaturus, -a sum, I am about to love.

  • amaturus, -a es, thou art about to love.

  • amaturus, -a est, he (she) is about to love.

  • amaturi, -ae sumus, we are about to love.

etc.

  • amandus, -a sum, I am meet to be loved.

etc.

In the same way the Participle futurus may be used with the tenses of sum: futurus sum, I am about to be.

The Active Future Participle with fuisse forms an Imperfect Future Infinitive, which is only used conditionally: amaturus fuisse, to have been about to love.

115. The Verb Sum, I am

This verb is formed from two roots, es, to be, and fu, to become. The Present Stem is formed from the root es. The Perfect and Participial Stems from the root fu. In the tense forms, es- sometimes drops e: sum, sumus; sometimes s changes to r: eram.

Tense Indicative Conjunctive Imperative
Present sum, I am
es, thou art
est, he is
sumus, we are
estis, ye are
sunt, they are
sim
sis
sit
simus
sitis
sint
es, esto, be thou
esto, let him be
este, estote, be ye
sunto, let them be
Future Simple ero, I shall be
eris, thou wilt be
erit, he will be
erimus, we shall be
eritis, ye will be
erunt, they will be
Imperfect eram, I was
eras, thou wast
erat, he was
eramus, we were
eratis, ye were
erant, they were
essem or forem
esses or fores
esset or foret
essemus
essetis
essent or forent
Perfect fui, I have been or I was
fuisti, thou hast been or thou wast
fuit, he has been or he was
fuimus, we have been or we were
fuistis, ye have been or ye were
fuerunt, they have been or they were
fuerim
fueris
fuerit
fuerimus
fueritis
fuerint
Future Perfect fuero, I shall have been
fueris, thou wilt have been
fuerit, he will have been
fuerimus, we shall have been
fueritis, ye will have been
fuerint, they will have been
Pluperfect fueram, I had been
fueras, thou hadst been
fuerat, he had been
fueramus, we had been
fueratis, ye had been
fuerant, they had been
fuissem
fuisses
fuisset
fuissemus
fuissetis
fuissent
Infinitives Present: esse, to be
Perfect: fuisse, to have been
Future: futurus esse or fore, to be about to be
Participles Future: futurus, about to be
Gerunds and Supines (None)

Note: There is no present participle of sum. It is only seen in the compounds, ab-sens, prae-sens.

Like Sum are conjugated its compounds: absum, am absent; adsum, am present; desum, am wanting; insum, am in or among; intersum, am among; obsum, hinder; praesum, am set over; prosum, am of use; subsum, am under; supersum, survive. In prosum the final d of the old preposition is kept before e: prodes.

116. First Conjugation – A-Stems

Tense Indicative Conjunctive Imperative
Present amo, I love or am loving
amas, thou lovest or art loving
amat, he loves or is loving
amamus, we love or are loving
amatis, ye love or are loving
amant, they love or are loving
amem
ames
amet
amemus
ametis
ament
ama, amato, love thou
amato, let him love
amate, amato, love ye
amanto, let them love
Future Simple amabo, I shall love
amabis, thou wilt love
amabit, he will love
amabimus, we shall love
amabitis, ye will love
amabunt, they will love
Imperfect amabam, I was loving or I loved
amabas, thou wast loving or thou lovedst
amabat, he was loving or he loved
amabamus, we were loving or we loved
amabatis, ye were loving or ye loved
amabant, they were loving or they loved
amarem
amares
amaret
amaremus
amaretis
amarent
Perfect amavi, I have loved or I loved
amavisti, thou hast loved or thou lovedst
amavit, he has loved or he loved
amavimus, we have loved or we loved
amavistis, ye have loved or ye loved
amaverunt, they have loved or they loved
amaverim
amaveris
amaverit
amaverimus
amaveritis
amaverint
Future Perfect amavero, I shall have loved
amaveris, thou wilt have loved
amaverit, he will have loved
amaverimus, we shall have loved
amaveritis, ye will have loved
amaverint, they will have loved
Pluperfect amaveram, I had loved
amaveras, thou hadst loved
amaverat, he had loved
amaveramus, we had loved
amaveratis, ye had loved
amaverant, they had loved
amavissem
amavisses
amavisset
amavissemus
amavissetis
amavissent
Infinitives Present: amare, to love
Perfect: amavisse, to have loved
Future: amaturus esse, to be about to love
Gerunds Nom. Acc.: amandum, the loving
Gen.: amandi, of loving
Dat. Abl.: amando, for or by loving
Supines amatum, in order to love
amatu, in or for loving
Participles Present: amans, loving
Future: amaturus, about to love

117. Second Conjugation – E-Stems

Tense Indicative Conjunctive Imperative
Present moneo, I advise or am advising
mones, thou advisest or art advising
monet, he advises or is advising
monemus, we advise or are advising
monetis, ye advise or are advising
monent, they advise or are advising
moneam
moneas
moneat
moneamus
moneatis
moneant
mone, moneto, advise thou
moneto, let him advise
monete, monetote, advise ye
monento, let them advise
Future Simple monebo, I shall advise
monebis, thou wilt advise
monebit, he will advise
monebimus, we shall advise
monebitis, ye will advise
monebunt, they will advise
Imperfect monebam, I was advising or I advised
monebas, thou wast advising or thou advisedst
monebat, he was advising or he advised
monebamus, we were advising or we advised
monebatis, ye were advising or ye advised
monebant, they were advising or they advised
monerem
moneres
moneret
moneremus
moneretis
monerent
Perfect monui, I have advised or I advised
monuisti, thou hast advised or thou advisedst
monuit, he has advised or he advised
monuimus, we have advised or we advised
monuistis, ye have advised or ye advised
monuerunt, they have advised or they advised
monuerim
monueris
monuerit
monuerimus
monueritis
monuerint
Future Perfect monuero, I shall have advised
monueris, thou wilt have advised
monuerit, he will have advised
monuerimus, we shall have advised
monueritis, ye will have advised
monuerint, they will have advised
Pluperfect monueram, I had advised
monueras, thou hadst advised
monuerat, he had advised
monueramus, we had advised
monueratis, ye had advised
monuerant, they had advised
monuissem
monuisses
monuisset
monuissemus
monuissetis
monuissent
Infinitives Present: monere, to advise
Perfect: monuisse, to have advised
Future: moniturus esse, to be about to advise
Gerunds Nom. Acc.: monendum, the advising
Gen.: monendi, of advising
Dat. Abl.: monendo, for or by advising
Supines monitum, in order to advise
monitu, in or for advising
Participles Present: monens, advising
Future: moniturus, about to advise