GCSE Greek: Prose Literature A (2018-19)


Cover

Tales from
Herodotus

Solon and Croesus;
Alcmaeon and Croesus

GCSE Greek Prose A 2018-19

Croesus showing his treasures to Solon, by  Frans Francken the Younger (1581–1642)

Intro

1

Solon, the Athenian statesman and philosopher, visits Croesus, the rich king of Lydia. Croesus poses a question and receives an unexpected answer.

ἐκδημήσας ὁ Σόλων εἰς Σάρδεις ἀφίκετο παρὰ Κροῖσον.
ἀφικόμενος δὲ ἐξενίζετο ἐν τοῖς βασιλείοις ὑπὸ τοῦ Κροίσου·
μετὰ δέ, ἡμέρᾳ τρίτῃ ἢ τετάρτῃ, κελεύσαντος Κροίσου, τὸν
Σόλωνα θεράποντες περιῆγον κατὰ τοὺς θησαυρούς, καὶ
ἐπεδείκνυσαν πάντα ὄντα μεγάλα τε καὶ ὄλβια.
θεασάμενον δὲ αὐτὸν πάντα ἤρετο ὁ Κροῖσος τάδε, ‘ξένε
Ἀθηναῖε, παρʹ ἡμᾶς περὶ σοῦ λόγος ἀφῖκται πολύς, καὶ
σοφίας ἕνεκα τῆς σῆς καὶ πλάνης· νῦν οὖν ἵμερος ἐπῆλθέ με
ἐπερωτᾶν εἴ τινα ἤδη πάντων εἶδες ὀλβιώτατον.’

ὁ μὲν ἐλπίζων εἶναι ἀνθρώπων ὀλβιώτατος ταῦτα ἐπηρώτα·
Σόλων δέ , οὐδὲν ὑποθωπεύσας ἀλλὰ τῷ ὄντι χρησάμενος,
λέγει ‘ὦ βασιλεῦ, Τέλλον Ἀθηναῖον.’ ἀποθαυμάσας δὲ
Κροῖσος τὸ λεχθὲν ἤρετο ἐπιστρεφῶς, ‘πῶς δὴ κρίνεις
Τέλλον εἶναι ὀλβιώτατον;’

Croesus and Solon by Johann Georg Platzer

Solon, the Athenian statesman and philosopher, visits Croesus, the rich king of Lydia. Croesus poses a question and receives an unexpected answer.

Having gone abroad Solon arrived at Sardis, at the house of Croesus.
When he arrived, he was entertained in the palace by Croesus;
afterwards, on the third or fourth day, when Croesus gave the command,
his servants led Solon around, all through the treasures, and
they pointed out everything which was great and prosperous.
As he was gazing at everything, Croesus asked him this: ‘Athenian
guest, much word has reached us about you, on account of
both your wisdom and travelling. And so now a desire has come upon me
to ask who, of all those you have seen by now, (is) the most fortunate.’

He asked this expecting himself to be the happiest of men;
but Solon, since he flattered no one but employed the real truth,
said: ‘O king, Tellus the Athenian.’ Croesus, amazed
at what had been said, asked eagerly: ‘ Indeed, how do you judge
Tellus to be the happiest?’

Solon, the Athenian statesman and philosopher, visits Croesus, the rich king of Lydia. Croesus poses a question and receives an unexpected answer.

εἰς Σάρδεις – Sardis was the capital city of Lydia, an empire which covered a large part of modern Turkey, including the west coast.

Map of Lydia

Κροῖσον – Croesus was the king of Lydia from 560 BC until its fall to the Persians some 14 years later. His wealth, and his life, were legendary even in ancient times.

ἡμέρᾳ τρίτῃ ἢ τετάρτῃ – “on the third or fourth day.” The attempt to give a specific time helps to give the impression that the account is factual.

κατὰ τοὺς θησαυρούς – “throughout the treasures.” κατὰ (lit. “up and down”), along with περιῆγον, indicate the thoroughness of the tour, and thus the vanity of Croesus.

πάντα ὄντα μεγάλα τε καὶ ὄλβια – “everything which was big and prosperous.” The tour seems somewhat tacky, with only the large, expensive items being singled out by the guides.

πολύς – placed emphatically, after the verb, at the end of the sentence. Croesus is keen to flatter Solon, perhaps to soften him up for the question he is about to ask.

σοφίας – emphatically promoted to the front of the sentence: more flattery.

ἵμερος – “desire.” A poetic word. The whole expression ἵμερος ἐπῆλθέ με is elegant, and revealing of Croesus’ high status.

ἐλπίζων – “thinking” or perhaps “expecting” rather than “hoping.” The word implies Croesus’ quiet confidence rather than desperation. The μὲν … δέ structure neatly sets up and delivers the subsequent disappointment.

οὐδὲν ὑποθωπεύσας ἀλλὰ τῷ ὄντι χρησάμενος – a pleonasm, since employing the actual truth (τῷ ὄντι χρησάμενος) would exclude engaging in acts of flattery. The effect emphasises Solon’s habit of telling the truth.

ὦ βασιλεῦ – note the respectful address. Solon is polite, if undiplomatic.

Τέλλον Ἀθηναῖον – Solon’s answer is distinctly unadorned.

Solon and Croesus, by  Gerard van Honthorst  (1592–1656)

ἀποθαυμάσας – “amazed.” The position, immediately after Solon’s answer, conveys Croesus’ shock. The passive of τὸ λεχθὲν (“what had been said”) gives Solon’s words a detached unrealness, from Croesus’ perspective. The surprising nature of Solon’s answer leads to Croesus asking his next question ἐπιστρεφῶς (eagerly).

πῶς δὴ – “How indeed?” δὴ emphasises Croesus’ disbelief.

Athens and her neighbourhood (from page 303 of A General History of Greece, Cox 1876)

2

Solon shows his reasoning for awarding Tellus first place, then names Cleobis and Biton in joint second.

ὁ δὲ εἶπε, ‘Τέλλῳ τοῦτο μὲν παῖδες ἦσαν καλοί τε κἀγαθοί,
καὶ εἶδεν ἅπασιν αὐτοῖς τέκνα ἐκγενόμενα, καὶ πάντα
παραμείναντα· τοῦτο δὲ τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου λαμπροτάτη
ἐπεγένετο· γενομένης γὰρ Ἀθηναίοις μάχης πρὸς τοὺς
ἀστυγείτονας ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι, βοηθήσας καὶ τροπὴν ποιήσας
τῶν πολεμίων, ἀπέθανε κάλλιστα. καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι δημοσίᾳ τε
ἔθαψαν αὐτὸν ᾗπερ ἔπεσε, καὶ ἐτίμησαν μεγάλως.’

ὡς δὲ τὰ κατὰ τὸν Τέλλον διηγήσατο ὁ Σόλων, ἐπηρώτα
ὁ Κροῖσος τίνα δεύτερον μετʹ ἐκεῖνον ἴδοι, δοκῶν πάνυ
δευτερεῖα γοῦν οἴσεσθαι. ὁ δε εἶπε, ‘Κλέοβίν τε καὶ Βίτωνα·
τούτοις γὰρ, οὖσι γένος Ἀργείοις , βίος τε ἀρκῶν ὑπῆν, καὶ
πρὸς τούτῳ, ῥώμη σώματος τοιάδε· ἀθλοφόροι τε ἀμφότεροι
ὁμοίως ἦσαν, καὶ δὴ καὶ λέγεται ὅδε ὁ λόγος.

Athens and her neighbourhood (from page 303 of A General History of Greece, Cox 1876)

Solon shows his reasoning for awarding Tellus first place, then names Cleobis and Biton in joint second.

And he said: ‘In the first place, Tellus had noble and good children,
and he witnessed children born to all of them, and they all
survived; secondly, the end of his life was most illustrious;
for when there was a battle for the Athenians against their
neighbours in Eleusis, having helped and caused the rout
of the enemy, he died most honourably. And the Athenians buried
him at public expense where he fell, and they honoured him greatly.’

When Solon had gone through the things regarding Tellus, Croesus
asked whom he thought second after that man, thinking that surely
he would win second place at any rate. But he said: ‘Cleobis and Biton;
since for them, being Argive by birth, a sufficient life was available, and
in addition to this, strength of body as follows: they were both prizewinners
similarly, and indeed this story is also told.

Solon shows his reasoning for awarding Tellus first place, then names Cleobis and Biton in joint second.

ὁ δὲ εἶπε, tooltip tooltip μὲν παῖδες ἦσαν tooltip τε κἀγαθοί,
tooltip εἶδεν tooltip αὐτοῖς τέκνα ἐκγενόμενα, καὶ tooltip

παραμείναντα· tooltip δὲ τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου tooltip

ἐπεγένετο· γενομένης γὰρ Ἀθηναίοις μάχης πρὸς τοὺς
tooltip ἐν tooltip βοηθήσας καὶ τροπὴν ποιήσας
τῶν πολεμίων, ἀπέθανε κάλλιστα. καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι tooltip τε
ἔθαψαν αὐτὸν tooltip ἔπεσε, καὶ tooltip μεγάλως.’

ὡς δὲ τὰ κατὰ τὸν Τέλλον διηγήσατο ὁ Σόλων, ἐπηρώτα
ὁ Κροῖσος τίνα δεύτερον μετʹ ἐκεῖνον ἴδοι, δοκῶν tooltip

δευτερεῖα γοῦν οἴσεσθαι. ὁ δε εἶπε, ‘Κλέοβίν τε καὶ Βίτωνα·
τούτοις γὰρ, οὖσι γένος Ἀργείοις , βίος τε tooltip ὑπῆν, καὶ
πρὸς τούτῳ, tooltip σώματος τοιάδε· ἀθλοφόροι τε tooltip

ὁμοίως ἦσαν, tooltip δὴ καὶ tooltip ὅδε ὁ λόγος.

Athens and her neighbourhood (from page 303 of A General History of Greece, Cox 1876)

3

The tale of Cleobis and Biton.

οὔσης ἑορτῆς τῇ Ἥρᾳ ἔδει πάντως τὴν μητέρα αὐτῶν ζεύγει
κομισθῆναι εἰς τὸ ἱερόν· οἱ δὲ βόες ἐκ τοῦ ἀγροῦ οὐ
παρεγίγνοντο ἐν ὥρᾳ. οἱ δὲ νεανίαι, ὑποδύντες αὐτοὶ
ὑπὸ τὴν ζεύγλην, εἷλκον τὴν ἅμαξαν, ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ἁμάξης
ὠχεῖτο ἡ μήτηρ. σταδίους δὲ πέντε καὶ τετταράκοντα
διακομίσαντες ἀφίκοντο εἰς τὸ ἱερόν· ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσασιν
αὐτοῖς καὶ ὀφθεῖσι ὑπὸ τῆς πανηγύρεως τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου
ἀρίστη ἐπεγένετο· διέδειξέ τε ἐν τούτοις ὁ θεὸς ὡς ἄμεινον εἴη
ἀνθρώπῳ τεθνάναι μᾶλλον ἢ ζῆν. Ἀργεῖοι μὲν γὰρ περιστάντες
ἐμακάριζον τῶν νεανιῶν τὴν ῥώμην, αἱ δὲ Ἀργεῖαι τὴν μητέρα
αὐτῶν οἵων τέκνων ἐκύρησε· ἡ δὲ μήτηρ περιχαρὴς οὖσα
τῷ τε ἔργῳ καὶ τῇ φήμῃ, στᾶσα ἀντίον τοῦ ἀγάλματος ηὔχετο
τὴν θεὸν δοῦναι Κλεόβεί τε καὶ Βίτωνι ὃ ἀνθρώπῳ τυχεῖν
ἄριστόν ἐστι.

Cleobis and Biton, by Nicolas Loir

The tale of Cleobis and Biton.

When there was a festival for Hera, altogether it was necessary to convey their mother
by chariot to the temple. But the oxen from the field were not at hand
in time. And the young men, taking on their shoulders the yoke strap
themselves, drew the wagon, and on the wagon
rode their mother. Having carried (her) forty five stades
they arrived at the temple; having done this
and having been seen by the crowd, the best end of life
happened to them; and in their case the god made clear that it is better
for man to die than to live. For the Argive men standing round
blessed the strength of the young men, while the Argive women (blessed)
their mother (because) she had obtained such children; as the mother was
overjoyed at the deed and at the praise, standing before the statue she prayed
that the god grant to Cleobis and Biton what is the best thing to happen
for a person.

The tale of Cleobis and Biton.

οὔσης ἑορτῆς τῇ Ἥρᾳ ἔδει tooltip τὴν tooltip αὐτῶν ζεύγει
κομισθῆναι εἰς τὸ ἱερόν· οἱ δὲ βόες ἐκ τοῦ ἀγροῦ οὐ
παρεγίγνοντο ἐν ὥρᾳ. οἱ δὲ νεανίαι, ὑποδύντες tooltip

ὑπὸ τὴν ζεύγλην, εἷλκον τὴν tooltip ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ἁμάξης
ὠχεῖτο ἡ tooltip σταδίους δὲ πέντε καὶ tooltip

διακομίσαντες ἀφίκοντο εἰς τὸ tooltip ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσασιν
αὐτοῖς καὶ ὀφθεῖσι ὑπὸ τῆς tooltip τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου
tooltip ἐπεγένετο· tooltip τε ἐν τούτοις ὁ θεὸς ὡς ἄμεινον εἴη
ἀνθρώπῳ tooltip μᾶλλον ἢ ζῆν. tooltip μὲν γὰρ περιστάντες
ἐμακάριζον τῶν νεανιῶν τὴν ῥώμην, αἱ δὲ Ἀργεῖαι τὴν μητέρα
αὐτῶν οἵων τέκνων ἐκύρησε· ἡ δὲ μήτηρ tooltip οὖσα
τῷ τε ἔργῳ καὶ τῇ tooltip στᾶσα ἀντίον τοῦ ἀγάλματος ηὔχετο
τὴν tooltip δοῦναι Κλεόβεί τε καὶ Βίτωνι ὃ ἀνθρώπῳ τυχεῖν
ἄριστόν ἐστι.

Cleobis and Biton, by Nicolas Loir

4

Cleobis and Biton are honoured after death. Only then, explains Solon, can a man’s happiness be assessed.

μετὰ δὲ ταύτην δὲ τὴν εὐχήν, ὡς ἔθυσάν τε καὶ εὐωχήθησαν,
κατακοιμηθέντες ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ ἱερῷ οἱ νεανίαι οὐκέτι ἀνέστησαν,
ἀλλʹ ἐν τέλει τούτῳ ἔσχοντο. Ἀργεῖοι δὲ εἰκόνας αὐτῶν ποιησάμενοι
ἀνέθεσαν εἰς Δελφούς, ὡς ἀνδρῶν ἀρίστων γενομένων.’

Σόλων μὲν δὴ εὐδαιμονίας δευτερεῖα ἔνεμε τούτοις·
Κροῖσος δὲ σπερχθεὶς εἶπεν, ‘ὦ ξένε Ἀθηναῖε, ἡ δὲ ἡμετέρα
εὐδαιμονία οὕτω τοι ἀπέρριπται εἰς τὸ μηδέν, ὥστε οὐδὲ
ἰδιωτῶν ἀνδρῶν ἀξίους ἡμᾶς ἐποίησας;’ ὁ δὲ εἶπεν, ‘ὦ Κροῖσε,
ἐπιστάμενόν με τὸ θεῖον πᾶν φθονερόν τε καὶ ταραχῶδες ὂν
ἐπερωτᾷς ἀνθρωπείων πραγμάτων πέρι. ἐμοὶ δὲ σὺ καὶ πλουτεῖν
μὲν μέγα φαίνει, καὶ βασιλεὺς πολλῶν εἶναι ἀνθρώπων·
εὐδαίμονα δὲ οὔπω σε ἐγὼ λέγω, πρὶν ἂν τελευτήσαντά σε
καλῶς τὸν αἰῶνα πύθωμαι. σκοπεῖν δὲ χρὴ παντὸς χρήματος
τὴν τελευτήν πῇ ἀποβήσεται· πολλοῖς γὰρ δὴ ὑποδείξας ὄλβον
ὁ θεὸς προρρίζους ἀνέτρεψε.’

Cleobis and Biton are honoured after death. Only then, explains Solon, can a man’s happiness be assessed.

After this prayer, when they had sacrificed and feasted,
having gone to sleep in the temple itself, the young men never got up,
but were kept in this end. And the Argives had likenesses of them made and
set them up at Delphi, as being the best of men.

Thus Solon allotted the second place of happiness to these men;
but Croesus in haste said, ‘Athenian guest, is our own happiness
thus in truth cast aside to nothing, with the result that you do not
make us as worthy as common men?’ He said, ‘O Croesus,
although I know well that the divine is altogether envious and troublesome,
you ask me about the affairs of man. You seem to me both to be
very rich, and to be king of many people;
but not yet do I say you are happy, until I have learned that you have ended
your life nobly. It is necessary to consider the end of the whole
affair, how it turns out; since in fact for many people, the god, having shown them
happiness, overturns them from the roots.

Cleobis and Biton are honoured after death. Only then, explains Solon, can a man’s happiness be assessed.

μετὰ δὲ ταύτην δὲ τὴν εὐχήν, ὡς ἔθυσάν τε καὶ εὐωχήθησαν,
κατακοιμηθέντες ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ ἱερῷ οἱ νεανίαι οὐκέτι tooltip

ἀλλʹ ἐν τέλει τούτῳ ἔσχοντο. Ἀργεῖοι δὲ tooltip αὐτῶν tooltip

ἀνέθεσαν εἰς Δελφούς, ὡς ἀνδρῶν ἀρίστων γενομένων.’

Σόλων tooltip δὴ εὐδαιμονίας δευτερεῖα ἔνεμε τούτοις·
Κροῖσος δὲ tooltip εἶπεν, ‘ὦ ξένε Ἀθηναῖε, ἡ δὲ tooltip

εὐδαιμονία οὕτω tooltip ἀπέρριπται εἰς τὸ tooltip ὥστε οὐδὲ
tooltip ἀνδρῶν ἀξίους ἡμᾶς ἐποίησας;’ ὁ δὲ εἶπεν, ‘ὦ Κροῖσε,
ἐπιστάμενόν με τὸ θεῖον πᾶν tooltip τε καὶ ταραχῶδες ὂν
ἐπερωτᾷς ἀνθρωπείων πραγμάτων πέρι. ἐμοὶ δὲ σὺ καὶ πλουτεῖν
tooltip μέγα tooltip καὶ βασιλεὺς πολλῶν εἶναι ἀνθρώπων·
εὐδαίμονα δὲ οὔπω σε ἐγὼ λέγω, πρὶν ἂν τελευτήσαντά σε
καλῶς τὸν αἰῶνα πύθωμαι. σκοπεῖν δὲ χρὴ παντὸς χρήματος
τὴν τελευτήν πῇ tooltip tooltip γὰρ δὴ tooltip ὄλβον
ὁ θεὸς tooltip tooltip

5

Solon goes away, leaving Croesus unconvinced. Only later does the mighty king see the wisdom of Solon.

ταῦτα λέγων τῷ Κροίσῳ οὔ πως ἐχαρίζετο ὁ Σόλων· λόγου δὲ
αὐτὸν ποιησάμενος οὐδενὸς ἀποπέμπεται ὁ Κροῖσος, κάρτα
δόξας ἀμαθῆ εἶναι, ὃς τὰ παρόντα ἀγαθὰ μεθεὶς τὴν τελευτὴν
παντὸς χρήματος ὁρᾶν ἐκέλευε.

μετὰ δὲ Σόλωνα οἰχόμενον ἔλαβεν ἐκ θεοῦ νέμεσις μεγάλη
Κροῖσον, ὡς εἰκάσαι, ὅτι ἐνόμισεν ἑαυτὸν εἶναι ἀνθρώπων
ἁπάντων ὀλβιώτατον. οἱ γὰρ Πέρσαι τάς τε Σάρδεις εἷλον,
καὶ αὐτὸν Κροῖσον ἐζώγρησαν, ἄρξαντα ἔτη τετταρεσκαίδεκα·
λαβόντες δὲ αὐτὸν ἤγαγον παρὰ Κῦρον. ὁ δὲ συννήσας πυρὰν
μεγάλην ἀνεβίβασεν ἐπʹ αὐτὴν τὸν Κροῖσόν τε ἐν πέδαις
δεδεμένον καὶ δὶς ἑπτὰ Λυδῶν παρʹ αὐτὸν παῖδας. τῷ δὲ Κροίσῳ,
ἑστῶτι ἐπὶ τῆς πυρᾶς, εἰσῆλθε , καίπερ ἐν κακῷ ὄντι τοσούτῳ,
τὸ τοῦ Σόλωνος, ὡς εἴη σὺν θεῷ εἰρημένον, τὸ ‘μηδένα εἶναι τῶν
ζώντων ὄλβιον.’ ἀνενεγκάμενος δὲ καὶ ἀναστενάξας ἐκ πολλῆς
ἡσυχίας εἰς τρὶς ὠνόμασε Σόλωνα·

Solon goes away, leaving Croesus unconvinced. Only later does the mighty king see the wisdom of Solon.

Having said this, Solon in no way pleased Croesus; and Croesus
sent him away, considering him of no worth, and thinking
him to be especially foolish, since he ignored the present good and
told him to look to the end of the whole affair.

After Solon had gone, a great retribution from god took hold of
Croesus, as one may guess, because he considered himself to be
the happiest of all men. For the Persians captured Sardis, and they
took Croesus prisoner, having ruled for fourteen years;
they took him and led him to Cyrus. Having piled up a great
pyre, he made Croesus climb on it, both bound in chains
and with twice seven sons of Lydia alongside him. But to Croesus,
as he was standing on the pyre, although he was in such great trouble,
it occurred that the (saying) of Solon, that ‘no one of the living is happy,’
had been uttered with divine inspiration. Heaving a deep sigh and groaning aloud
after a long silence, he called the name of Solon three times;

Solon goes away, leaving Croesus unconvinced. Only later does the mighty king see the wisdom of Solon.

ταῦτα λέγων τῷ Κροίσῳ οὔ tooltip ἐχαρίζετο ὁ Σόλων· λόγου δὲ
αὐτὸν ποιησάμενος οὐδενὸς tooltip ὁ Κροῖσος, tooltip

δόξας ἀμαθῆ εἶναι, ὃς τὰ παρόντα ἀγαθὰ μεθεὶς τὴν τελευτὴν
παντὸς χρήματος ὁρᾶν tooltip

μετὰ δὲ Σόλωνα οἰχόμενον tooltip ἐκ θεοῦ tooltip μεγάλη
Κροῖσον, ὡς tooltip ὅτι ἐνόμισεν ἑαυτὸν εἶναι ἀνθρώπων
ἁπάντων ὀλβιώτατον. οἱ γὰρ Πέρσαι τάς τε tooltip εἷλον,
καὶ tooltip Κροῖσον ἐζώγρησαν, tooltip ἔτη τετταρεσκαίδεκα·
λαβόντες δὲ αὐτὸν ἤγαγον παρὰ tooltip ὁ δὲ συννήσας πυρὰν
μεγάλην ἀνεβίβασεν ἐπʹ αὐτὴν τὸν Κροῖσόν τε ἐν πέδαις
δεδεμένον καὶ tooltip ἑπτὰ Λυδῶν παρʹ αὐτὸν παῖδας. τῷ δὲ Κροίσῳ,
ἑστῶτι ἐπὶ τῆς πυρᾶς, εἰσῆλθε , καίπερ ἐν κακῷ ὄντι τοσούτῳ,
τὸ τοῦ Σόλωνος, ὡς εἴη σὺν θεῷ εἰρημένον, τὸ ‘μηδένα εἶναι τῶν
ζώντων ὄλβιον.’ tooltip δὲ καὶ ἀναστενάξας ἐκ tooltip

ἡσυχίας εἰς τρὶς ὠνόμασε Σόλωνα·

6

Solon’s wisdom is passed to Cyrus, who has a change of heart.

καὶ ὁ Κῦρος ἀκούσας ἐκέλευσε τοὺς ἑρμηνέας ἐπέρεσθαι
τὸν Κροῖσον τίνα ἐπικαλοῖτο· καὶ οἱ δὲ προσελθόντες ἐπηρώτων.
Κροῖσος δὲ τέως μὲν σιγὴν εἶχεν ἐρωτώμενος· μετὰ δὲ ἔλεγεν
ὡς ἔλθοι ποτὲ ὁ Σόλων, ὢν Ἀθηναῖος, καὶ θεασάμενος πάντα
τὸν ἑαυτοῦ ὄλβον ἀποφλαυρίσειε· καὶ πάντα ἑαυτῷ ἀποβεβήκοι
ᾗπερ ἐκεῖνος εἶπεν, οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον εἰς ἑαυτὸν λέγων ἢ
εἰς ἅπαν τὸ ἀνθρώπινον καὶ μάλιστα τοὺς παρʹ ἑαυτοῖς ὀλβίους
δοκοῦντας εἶναι. ὁ μὲν Κροῖσος ταῦτα ἀφηγεῖτο, τῆς δὲ πυρᾶς
ἤδη ἡμμένης ἐκαίετο τὰ περιέσχατα. καὶ ὁ Κῦρος, ἀκούσας παρὰ
τῶν ἑρμηνέων ἃ Κροῖσος εἶπε, μεταγνούς τε καὶ ἐννοήσας ὅτι
καὶ αὐτὸς ἄνθρωπος ὢν ἄλλον ἄνθρωπον, γενόμενον ἑαυτοῦ
εὐδαιμονίᾳ οὐκ ἐλάττω, ζῶντα πυρὶ διδοίη, ἐκέλευε σβεννύναι
τὴν ταχίστην τὸ καιόμενον πῦρ, καὶ καταβιβάζειν Κροῖσόν τε
καὶ τοὺς μετὰ Κροίσου. καὶ οἱ δὲ πειρώμενοι οὐκ ἐδύναντο ἔτι
τοῦ πυρὸς ἐπικρατῆσαι.

Croesus on his pyre

Solon’s wisdom is passed to Cyrus, who has a change of heart.

And Cyrus listened and ordered the interpreters to ask
Croesus whom he was calling upon; and they approached him and asked.
For a while Croesus kept quiet when he was asked; afterwards he said
that Solon, the Athenian, had come once, and having gazed upon all
his worldly happiness he belittled it; and that everything had turned out for him
just as Solon had said, speaking with no more regard to him than
to every human being, especially those who consider themselves to be
fortunate in their own eyes. While Croesus was relating this, the fire already
had been lit and the edges were on fire. And Cyrus, having heard from
the interpreters what Croesus had said, both changing his mind and reflecting that
he too, a human being, was giving over to fire another living human being,
one who was no less in his good fortune, gave orders to put out the blazing fire
as quickly as possible, and to bring down both Croesus and those with Croesus.
And, despite trying, they were still unable to master the fire.

Solon’s wisdom is passed to Cyrus, who has a change of heart.

καὶ ὁ Κῦρος ἀκούσας ἐκέλευσε τοὺς tooltip ἐπέρεσθαι
τὸν Κροῖσον τίνα ἐπικαλοῖτο· καὶ οἱ δὲ προσελθόντες ἐπηρώτων.
Κροῖσος δὲ tooltip μὲν σιγὴν εἶχεν ἐρωτώμενος· μετὰ δὲ ἔλεγεν
ὡς ἔλθοι ποτὲ ὁ Σόλων, ὢν Ἀθηναῖος, καὶ θεασάμενος πάντα
τὸν ἑαυτοῦ ὄλβον tooltip καὶ πάντα ἑαυτῷ ἀποβεβήκοι
ᾗπερ ἐκεῖνος εἶπεν, οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον εἰς ἑαυτὸν λέγων ἢ
εἰς ἅπαν τὸ ἀνθρώπινον καὶ μάλιστα τοὺς παρʹ ἑαυτοῖς ὀλβίους
δοκοῦντας εἶναι. ὁ μὲν Κροῖσος ταῦτα ἀφηγεῖτο, τῆς δὲ πυρᾶς
ἤδη ἡμμένης ἐκαίετο τὰ περιέσχατα. καὶ ὁ Κῦρος, ἀκούσας παρὰ
τῶν ἑρμηνέων ἃ Κροῖσος εἶπε, μεταγνούς τε καὶ ἐννοήσας ὅτι
καὶ αὐτὸς ἄνθρωπος ὢν ἄλλον ἄνθρωπον, γενόμενον ἑαυτοῦ
tooltip οὐκ ἐλάττω, tooltip πυρὶ διδοίη, ἐκέλευε σβεννύναι
τὴν tooltip τὸ καιόμενον πῦρ, καὶ καταβιβάζειν Κροῖσόν τε
καὶ τοὺς μετὰ Κροίσου. καὶ οἱ δὲ πειρώμενοι οὐκ ἐδύναντο ἔτι
τοῦ πυρὸς ἐπικρατῆσαι.

Croesus on his pyre

7

Apollo rescues Croesus.

ἐνταῦθα Κροῖσος, μαθὼν τὴν Κύρου μετάγνωσιν, ἐπεβοήσατο
τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα ἐπικαλούμενος παραστῆναι καὶ ῥύσασθαι
αὐτὸν ἐκ τοῦ παρόντος κακοῦ. ὁ μὲν δακρύων ἐπεκαλεῖτο
τὸν θεόν· ἐκ δὲ αἰθρίας τε καὶ νηνεμίας συνέδραμεν ἐξαίφνης
νέφη, καὶ χειμών τε κατερράγη καὶ ὗσεν ὕδατι λαβροτάτῳ,
κατεσβέσθη τε ἡ πυρά.


The story of Alcaemon and Croesus.

οἱ Ἀλκμαιωνίδαι ἦσαν μὲν καὶ πάλαι λαμπροὶ ἐν ταῖς Ἀθήναις,
ἀπὸ δὲ Ἀλκμαίωνος καὶ αὖθις Μεγακλέους ἐγένοντο καὶ κάρτα
λαμπροί. ὁ γὰρ Ἀλκμαίων συμπράκτωρ ἐγίγνετο τοῖς ἐκ Σάρδεων
Λυδοῖς παρὰ Κροίσου ἀφικνουμένοις καὶ συνελάμβανε προθύμως·
καὶ Κροῖσος πυθόμενος ταῦτα μεταπέμπεται αὐτὸν εἰς Σάρδεις.
ἀφικόμενον δὲ δωρεῖται χρυσῷ τοσούτῳ ὅσον ἂν δύνηται
τῷ ἑαυτοῦ σώματι ἐξενεγκέσθαι εἰσάπαξ.

Apollo rescues Croesus.

Then Croesus, having understood Cyrus’ change of heart, called upon
Apollo, summoning him to stand alongside and rescue
him from the present evil. As he wept he called upon
the god; and suddenly out of a clear and calm sky gathered
clouds, and a storm broke out and it rained with the most furious rain,
and the fire was extinguished.


The story of Alcaemon and Croesus.

The Alcmaeonids were illustrious even long ago among the Athenians,
but from the time of Alcmaeon and again from Megacles they became especially
illustrious. For Alcmaeon became an assistant to the Lydians from Sardis
who arrived from Croesus and he would help them eagerly;
and Croesus, having learned about this, summoned him to Sardis.
When he arrived he was presented with as much gold as he was able
to carry away with his body in one go.

Apollo rescues Croesus.

ἐνταῦθα Κροῖσος, μαθὼν τὴν Κύρου μετάγνωσιν, ἐπεβοήσατο
τὸν tooltip tooltip παραστῆναι καὶ ῥύσασθαι
αὐτὸν ἐκ τοῦ παρόντος κακοῦ. ὁ μὲν tooltip tooltip

τὸν θεόν· ἐκ δὲ αἰθρίας τε καὶ νηνεμίας συνέδραμεν tooltip tooltip καὶ χειμών τε tooltip καὶ tooltip ὕδατι λαβροτάτῳ,
κατεσβέσθη τε ἡ πυρά.


The story of Alcaemon and Croesus.

οἱ Ἀλκμαιωνίδαι ἦσαν μὲν καὶ πάλαι λαμπροὶ ἐν ταῖς Ἀθήναις,
ἀπὸ δὲ Ἀλκμαίωνος καὶ αὖθις Μεγακλέους ἐγένοντο καὶ κάρτα
λαμπροί. ὁ γὰρ Ἀλκμαίων συμπράκτωρ ἐγίγνετο τοῖς ἐκ Σάρδεων
Λυδοῖς παρὰ Κροίσου ἀφικνουμένοις καὶ συνελάμβανε προθύμως·
καὶ Κροῖσος πυθόμενος ταῦτα μεταπέμπεται αὐτὸν εἰς Σάρδεις.
ἀφικόμενον δὲ δωρεῖται χρυσῷ τοσούτῳ ὅσον ἂν δύνηται
τῷ ἑαυτοῦ σώματι ἐξενεγκέσθαι εἰσάπαξ.

8

Alcaemon’s greed amuses Croesus.

ὁ δὲ Ἀλκμαίων ἐνδὺς χιτῶνα μέγαν καὶ κόλπον βαθὺν
καταλιπόμενος τοῦ χιτῶνος, καὶ κοθόρνους οὓς ηὕρισκεν
εὐρυτάτους ὄντας ὑποδησάμενος, ᾔει εἰς τὸν θησαυρόν.
εἰσπεσὼν δὲ εἰς σωρὸν ψήγματος πρῶτον μὲν παρέσαξε
παρὰ τὰς κνήμας ὅσον τοῦ χρυσοῦ ἐχώρουν οἱ κόθορνοι,
μετὰ δὲ, τὸν κόλπον πάντα πλησάμενος τοῦ χρυσοῦ καὶ εἰς
τὰς τρίχας τῆς κεφαλῆς διαπάσας τοῦ ψήγματος, καὶ ἄλλο
λαβὼν εἰς τὸ στόμα, ἐξῄει ἐκ τοῦ θησαυροῦ ἕλκων μὲν μόγις
τοὺς κοθόρνους, παντὶ δέ τινι εἰκὼς μᾶλλον ἢ ἀνθρώπῳ· τό
τε γὰρ στόμα ἐβέβυστο καὶ πάντα ἐξώγκωτο. ἰδόντα δὲ
τὸν Κροῖσον γέλως εἰσῆλθε, καὶ αὐτῷ πάντα τε ἐκεῖνα
δίδωσι, καὶ προσέτι ἕτερα οὐκ ἐλάττω ἐκείνων.

Alcaemon’s greed amuses Croesus.

And Alcmaeon, having put on a large tunic and having left a deep
fold in the tunic, and having put on boots which were the widest
he found to be, he went into the treasury.
Falling onto a heap of gold dust, first he stuffed in
beside his legs as much of the gold as his boots would hold,
afterwards, having filled the whole fold with gold and having sprinkled
onto the hair of his head some of the gold dust, and taking
more besides into his mouth, he came out of the treasury dragging his boots
with difficulty, resembling anything rather than a human being;
for his mouth was stuffed full and all swelled out. When he saw,
laughter entered Croesus, and he granted to him all that,
and another load in addition, no less than that.

Text

The full Greek text for this paper.


1

The story of Solon and Croesus.

ἐκδημήσας ὁ Σόλων εἰς Σάρδεις ἀφίκετο παρὰ Κροῖσον.
ἀφικόμενος δὲ ἐξενίζετο ἐν τοῖς βασιλείοις ὑπὸ τοῦ Κροίσου·
μετὰ δέ, ἡμέρᾳ τρίτῃ ἢ τετάρτῃ, κελεύσαντος Κροίσου, τὸν
Σόλωνα θεράποντες περιῆγον κατὰ τοὺς θησαυρούς, καὶ
ἐπεδείκνυσαν πάντα ὄντα μεγάλα τε καὶ ὄλβια.
θεασάμενον δὲ αὐτὸν πάντα ἤρετο ὁ Κροῖσος τάδε, ‘ξένε
Ἀθηναῖε, παρʹ ἡμᾶς περὶ σοῦ λόγος ἀφῖκται πολύς, καὶ
σοφίας ἕνεκα τῆς σῆς καὶ πλάνης· νῦν οὖν ἵμερος ἐπῆλθέ με
ἐπερωτᾶν εἴ τινα ἤδη πάντων εἶδες ὀλβιώτατον.’

ὁ μὲν ἐλπίζων εἶναι ἀνθρώπων ὀλβιώτατος ταῦτα ἐπηρώτα·
Σόλων δέ , οὐδὲν ὑποθωπεύσας ἀλλὰ τῷ ὄντι χρησάμενος,
λέγει ‘ὦ βασιλεῦ, Τέλλον Ἀθηναῖον.’ ἀποθαυμάσας δὲ
Κροῖσος τὸ λεχθὲν ἤρετο ἐπιστρεφῶς, ‘πῶς δὴ κρίνεις
Τέλλον εἶναι ὀλβιώτατον;’


2

ὁ δὲ εἶπε, ‘Τέλλῳ τοῦτο μὲν παῖδες ἦσαν καλοί τε κἀγαθοί,
καὶ εἶδεν ἅπασιν αὐτοῖς τέκνα ἐκγενόμενα, καὶ πάντα
παραμείναντα· τοῦτο δὲ τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου λαμπροτάτη
ἐπεγένετο· γενομένης γὰρ Ἀθηναίοις μάχης πρὸς τοὺς
ἀστυγείτονας ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι, βοηθήσας καὶ τροπὴν ποιήσας
τῶν πολεμίων, ἀπέθανε κάλλιστα. καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι δημοσίᾳ τε
ἔθαψαν αὐτὸν ᾗπερ ἔπεσε, καὶ ἐτίμησαν μεγάλως.’

ὡς δὲ τὰ κατὰ τὸν Τέλλον διηγήσατο ὁ Σόλων, ἐπηρώτα
ὁ Κροῖσος τίνα δεύτερον μετʹ ἐκεῖνον ἴδοι, δοκῶν πάνυ
δευτερεῖα γοῦν οἴσεσθαι. ὁ δε εἶπε, ‘Κλέοβίν τε καὶ Βίτωνα·
τούτοις γὰρ, οὖσι γένος Ἀργείοις , βίος τε ἀρκῶν ὑπῆν, καὶ
πρὸς τούτῳ, ῥώμη σώματος τοιάδε· ἀθλοφόροι τε ἀμφότεροι
ὁμοίως ἦσαν, καὶ δὴ καὶ λέγεται ὅδε ὁ λόγος.


3

οὔσης ἑορτῆς τῇ Ἥρᾳ ἔδει πάντως τὴν μητέρα αὐτῶν ζεύγει
κομισθῆναι εἰς τὸ ἱερόν· οἱ δὲ βόες ἐκ τοῦ ἀγροῦ οὐ
παρεγίγνοντο ἐν ὥρᾳ. οἱ δὲ νεανίαι, ὑποδύντες αὐτοὶ
ὑπὸ τὴν ζεύγλην, εἷλκον τὴν ἅμαξαν, ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ἁμάξης
ὠχεῖτο ἡ μήτηρ. σταδίους δὲ πέντε καὶ τετταράκοντα
διακομίσαντες ἀφίκοντο εἰς τὸ ἱερόν· ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσασιν
αὐτοῖς καὶ ὀφθεῖσι ὑπὸ τῆς πανηγύρεως τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου
ἀρίστη ἐπεγένετο· διέδειξέ τε ἐν τούτοις ὁ θεὸς ὡς ἄμεινον εἴη
ἀνθρώπῳ τεθνάναι μᾶλλον ἢ ζῆν. Ἀργεῖοι μὲν γὰρ περιστάντες
ἐμακάριζον τῶν νεανιῶν τὴν ῥώμην, αἱ δὲ Ἀργεῖαι τὴν μητέρα
αὐτῶν οἵων τέκνων ἐκύρησε· ἡ δὲ μήτηρ περιχαρὴς οὖσα
τῷ τε ἔργῳ καὶ τῇ φήμῃ, στᾶσα ἀντίον τοῦ ἀγάλματος ηὔχετο
τὴν θεὸν δοῦναι Κλεόβεί τε καὶ Βίτωνι ὃ ἀνθρώπῳ τυχεῖν
ἄριστόν ἐστι.


4

μετὰ δὲ ταύτην δὲ τὴν εὐχήν, ὡς ἔθυσάν τε καὶ εὐωχήθησαν,
κατακοιμηθέντες ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ ἱερῷ οἱ νεανίαι οὐκέτι ἀνέστησαν,
ἀλλʹ ἐν τέλει τούτῳ ἔσχοντο. Ἀργεῖοι δὲ εἰκόνας αὐτῶν ποιησάμενοι
ἀνέθεσαν εἰς Δελφούς, ὡς ἀνδρῶν ἀρίστων γενομένων.’

Σόλων μὲν δὴ εὐδαιμονίας δευτερεῖα ἔνεμε τούτοις·
Κροῖσος δὲ σπερχθεὶς εἶπεν, ‘ὦ ξένε Ἀθηναῖε, ἡ δὲ ἡμετέρα
εὐδαιμονία οὕτω τοι ἀπέρριπται εἰς τὸ μηδέν, ὥστε οὐδὲ
ἰδιωτῶν ἀνδρῶν ἀξίους ἡμᾶς ἐποίησας;’ ὁ δὲ εἶπεν, ‘ὦ Κροῖσε,
ἐπιστάμενόν με τὸ θεῖον πᾶν φθονερόν τε καὶ ταραχῶδες ὂν
ἐπερωτᾷς ἀνθρωπείων πραγμάτων πέρι. ἐμοὶ δὲ σὺ καὶ πλουτεῖν
μὲν μέγα φαίνει, καὶ βασιλεὺς πολλῶν εἶναι ἀνθρώπων·
εὐδαίμονα δὲ οὔπω σε ἐγὼ λέγω, πρὶν ἂν τελευτήσαντά σε
καλῶς τὸν αἰῶνα πύθωμαι. σκοπεῖν δὲ χρὴ παντὸς χρήματος
τὴν τελευτήν πῇ ἀποβήσεται· πολλοῖς γὰρ δὴ ὑποδείξας ὄλβον
ὁ θεὸς προρρίζους ἀνέτρεψε.’


5

ταῦτα λέγων τῷ Κροίσῳ οὔ πως ἐχαρίζετο ὁ Σόλων· λόγου δὲ
αὐτὸν ποιησάμενος οὐδενὸς ἀποπέμπεται ὁ Κροῖσος, κάρτα
δόξας ἀμαθῆ εἶναι, ὃς τὰ παρόντα ἀγαθὰ μεθεὶς τὴν τελευτὴν
παντὸς χρήματος ὁρᾶν ἐκέλευε.

μετὰ δὲ Σόλωνα οἰχόμενον ἔλαβεν ἐκ θεοῦ νέμεσις μεγάλη
Κροῖσον, ὡς εἰκάσαι, ὅτι ἐνόμισεν ἑαυτὸν εἶναι ἀνθρώπων
ἁπάντων ὀλβιώτατον. οἱ γὰρ Πέρσαι τάς τε Σάρδεις εἷλον,
καὶ αὐτὸν Κροῖσον ἐζώγρησαν, ἄρξαντα ἔτη τετταρεσκαίδεκα·
λαβόντες δὲ αὐτὸν ἤγαγον παρὰ Κῦρον. ὁ δὲ συννήσας πυρὰν
μεγάλην ἀνεβίβασεν ἐπʹ αὐτὴν τὸν Κροῖσόν τε ἐν πέδαις
δεδεμένον καὶ δὶς ἑπτὰ Λυδῶν παρʹ αὐτὸν παῖδας. τῷ δὲ Κροίσῳ,
ἑστῶτι ἐπὶ τῆς πυρᾶς, εἰσῆλθε , καίπερ ἐν κακῷ ὄντι τοσούτῳ,
τὸ τοῦ Σόλωνος, ὡς εἴη σὺν θεῷ εἰρημένον, τὸ ‘μηδένα εἶναι τῶν
ζώντων ὄλβιον.’ ἀνενεγκάμενος δὲ καὶ ἀναστενάξας ἐκ πολλῆς
ἡσυχίας εἰς τρὶς ὠνόμασε Σόλωνα·


6

καὶ ὁ Κῦρος ἀκούσας ἐκέλευσε τοὺς ἑρμηνέας ἐπέρεσθαι
τὸν Κροῖσον τίνα ἐπικαλοῖτο· καὶ οἱ δὲ προσελθόντες ἐπηρώτων.
Κροῖσος δὲ τέως μὲν σιγὴν εἶχεν ἐρωτώμενος· μετὰ δὲ ἔλεγεν
ὡς ἔλθοι ποτὲ ὁ Σόλων, ὢν Ἀθηναῖος, καὶ θεασάμενος πάντα
τὸν ἑαυτοῦ ὄλβον ἀποφλαυρίσειε· καὶ πάντα ἑαυτῷ ἀποβεβήκοι
ᾗπερ ἐκεῖνος εἶπεν, οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον εἰς ἑαυτὸν λέγων ἢ
εἰς ἅπαν τὸ ἀνθρώπινον καὶ μάλιστα τοὺς παρʹ ἑαυτοῖς ὀλβίους
δοκοῦντας εἶναι. ὁ μὲν Κροῖσος ταῦτα ἀφηγεῖτο, τῆς δὲ πυρᾶς
ἤδη ἡμμένης ἐκαίετο τὰ περιέσχατα. καὶ ὁ Κῦρος, ἀκούσας παρὰ
τῶν ἑρμηνέων ἃ Κροῖσος εἶπε, μεταγνούς τε καὶ ἐννοήσας ὅτι
καὶ αὐτὸς ἄνθρωπος ὢν ἄλλον ἄνθρωπον, γενόμενον ἑαυτοῦ
εὐδαιμονίᾳ οὐκ ἐλάττω, ζῶντα πυρὶ διδοίη, ἐκέλευε σβεννύναι
τὴν ταχίστην τὸ καιόμενον πῦρ, καὶ καταβιβάζειν Κροῖσόν τε
καὶ τοὺς μετὰ Κροίσου. καὶ οἱ δὲ πειρώμενοι οὐκ ἐδύναντο ἔτι
τοῦ πυρὸς ἐπικρατῆσαι.


7

ἐνταῦθα Κροῖσος, μαθὼν τὴν Κύρου μετάγνωσιν, ἐπεβοήσατο
τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα ἐπικαλούμενος παραστῆναι καὶ ῥύσασθαι
αὐτὸν ἐκ τοῦ παρόντος κακοῦ. ὁ μὲν δακρύων ἐπεκαλεῖτο
τὸν θεόν· ἐκ δὲ αἰθρίας τε καὶ νηνεμίας συνέδραμεν ἐξαίφνης
νέφη, καὶ χειμών τε κατερράγη καὶ ὗσεν ὕδατι λαβροτάτῳ,
κατεσβέσθη τε ἡ πυρά.


The story of Alcaemon and Croesus.

οἱ Ἀλκμαιωνίδαι ἦσαν μὲν καὶ πάλαι λαμπροὶ ἐν ταῖς Ἀθήναις,
ἀπὸ δὲ Ἀλκμαίωνος καὶ αὖθις Μεγακλέους ἐγένοντο καὶ κάρτα
λαμπροί. ὁ γὰρ Ἀλκμαίων συμπράκτωρ ἐγίγνετο τοῖς ἐκ Σάρδεων
Λυδοῖς παρὰ Κροίσου ἀφικνουμένοις καὶ συνελάμβανε προθύμως·
καὶ Κροῖσος πυθόμενος ταῦτα μεταπέμπεται αὐτὸν εἰς Σάρδεις.
ἀφικόμενον δὲ δωρεῖται χρυσῷ τοσούτῳ ὅσον ἂν δύνηται
τῷ ἑαυτοῦ σώματι ἐξενεγκέσθαι εἰσάπαξ.


8

ὁ δὲ Ἀλκμαίων ἐνδὺς χιτῶνα μέγαν καὶ κόλπον βαθὺν
καταλιπόμενος τοῦ χιτῶνος, καὶ κοθόρνους οὓς ηὕρισκεν
εὐρυτάτους ὄντας ὑποδησάμενος, ᾔει εἰς τὸν θησαυρόν.
εἰσπεσὼν δὲ εἰς σωρὸν ψήγματος πρῶτον μὲν παρέσαξε
παρὰ τὰς κνήμας ὅσον τοῦ χρυσοῦ ἐχώρουν οἱ κόθορνοι,
μετὰ δὲ, τὸν κόλπον πάντα πλησάμενος τοῦ χρυσοῦ καὶ εἰς
τὰς τρίχας τῆς κεφαλῆς διαπάσας τοῦ ψήγματος, καὶ ἄλλο
λαβὼν εἰς τὸ στόμα, ἐξῄει ἐκ τοῦ θησαυροῦ ἕλκων μὲν μόγις
τοὺς κοθόρνους, παντὶ δέ τινι εἰκὼς μᾶλλον ἢ ἀνθρώπῳ· τό
τε γὰρ στόμα ἐβέβυστο καὶ πάντα ἐξώγκωτο. ἰδόντα δὲ
τὸν Κροῖσον γέλως εἰσῆλθε, καὶ αὐτῷ πάντα τε ἐκεῖνα
δίδωσι, καὶ προσέτι ἕτερα οὐκ ἐλάττω ἐκείνων.