Iphigenia in Aulis: Section 1 vocabulary


Ἐγένοντο Λήδᾳ Θεστιάδι τρεῖς παρθένοι,
Φοίβη Κλυταιμήστρα τ᾽, ἐμὴ ξυνάορος,
Ἑλένη τε·

γίγνομαι, γενήσομαι, ἐγενόμην

I am, become, am born

Θεστίας, -άδος (f.)

daughter of Thestius

παρθένος, -ου (f.)

young woman, maiden

ξυνάορος, -ον

joined in wedlock; husband, wife
There were born to Leda, daughter of Thestius, three maidens,
Phoebe, my wife Clytemnestra,
and Helen.

ταύτης οἱ τὰ πρῶτ᾽ ὠλβισμένοι
μνηστῆρες ἦλθον Ἑλλάδος νεανίαι.

τὰ πρῶτα

to the first, greatest extent

ὀλβίζω, ὀλβιζιῶ, ὤλβισα, ὠλβίσθην

I consider happy, prosperous

μνηστήρ, -ῆρος (m.)

The young men who were considered the most prosperous
in Greece came as her suitors.

δειναὶ δ᾽ ἀπειλαὶ καὶ κατ᾽ ἀλλήλων φόνος
ξυνίσταθ᾽, ὅστις μὴ λάβοι τὴν παρθένον.

ἀπειλή, -ῆς (f.)

boast, promise, threat

κατ᾽ ἀλλήλων

against each other

φόνος, -ου (m.)

murder, slaughter

ξυνίσταμαι, ξυστήσομαι, ξυνιστάμην (imperf.)

come together, arise

ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι

whoever, whatever
Dreadful threats of death arose from each against
the other, if he should fail to take the girl.

τὸ πρᾶγμα δ᾽ ἀπόρως εἶχε Τυνδάρεῳ πατρί,
δοῦναί τε μὴ δοῦναί τε, τῆς τύχης ὅπως
ἅψαιτ᾽ ἄριστα. καί νιν εἰσῆλθεν τάδε·

πρᾶγμα, – ατος (n.)

deed, matter, affair

ἀπόρως ἔχειν

to be difficult, unmanageable


to give

τε … τε …

(here) or …


how, in what way

ἅπτομαι, ἅψομαι, ἡψάμην (+ gen.)

take hold of, grasp

νιν (acc.)

The matter was unmanageable for her father Tyndareus,
whether to give her away or not, how he might best
take hold of destiny. And this occurred to him:

ὅρκους συνάψαι δεξιάς τε συμβαλεῖν
μνηστῆρας ἀλλήλοισι καὶ δι᾽ ἐμπύρων
σπονδὰς καθεῖναι κἀπαράσασθαι τάδε·

ὅρκος, -ου (m.)


συνάπτω, συνάψω, συνῆψα

bind, clasp; take (an oath)

δεξιά, -άς (f.)

right hand

συμβάλλω, συμβάλω, σύμβαλον

bring together, join

ἔμπυρα, -ων (n. pl.)

burnt sacrifices

σπονδή, -ῆς (f.)

drink-offering, libation

καθίημι, καθήσω, καθῆκα

drop, let fall; pour out, forth


= καὶ ἐπαpάσασθαι

ἐπαράομαι, ἐπαpάσομαι

curse; swear, vow
that the suitors should take oaths and join their
right hands with each other, and through burnt-sacrifices
pour libations and swear this.

ὅτου γυνὴ γένοιτο Τυνδαρὶς κόρη,
τούτῳ ξυναμυνεῖν, εἴ τις ἐκ δόμων λαβὼν
οἴχοιτο τόν τ᾽ ἔχοντ᾽ ἀπωθοίη λέχους,


= gen. of ὅστις (whoever)

Τυνδαρὶς, – ίδος (f.)

daughter of Tyndareus

κόρη, -ης (f.)

daughter, maiden

ξυναμύνω, ξυναμυνῶ, ξυνήμυνα (+ dat.)

join in helping

δόμος, -ου (also in pl.)

house, home

οἴχομαι, οἰχήσομαι

go, am gone, depart

ἀπωθέω, ἀπωθώσω, ἀπωθέωσα

thrust away, drive out

λέχος, -ους (n.)

bed, marriage, wife
That they should assist the man whose wife the daughter of Tyndareus
becomes, if someone should take her from his home,
go off and drive her keeper out of the marriage bed.

κἀπιστρατεύσειν καὶ κατασκάψειν πόλιν
Ἕλλην᾽ ὁμοίως βάρβαρόν θ᾽ ὅπλων μέτα.


= καὶ ἐπιστρατεύσειν

ἐπιστρατεύω, ἐπιστρατεύσω

march against, make war upon

κατασκάπτω, κατασκάψω

destroy utterly, raze to the ground


alike, equally
and march against and destroy the city,
Greek or barbarian city alike, with arms.