The present participle is used to express simultaneous action, e.g.
|rex discedens reginam vidit.
|The king saw the queen when he was leaving.
It is usually more natural to use while or as when translating the present participle, e.g.
|The king saw the queen as he was leaving.
See the participles overview for other ways to translate them.
The present participle can sometimes act as a noun, when you might want to supply a word such as “person” or “people” for translation, e.g.
|magna turba clamantium in via erat.
|There was a large crowd of people shouting in the street.
|amantes in noctem festinaverunt.
|The lovers hurried into the night.
The present participle declines in a 3rd Declension pattern:
*The ablative participle is nearly always found in an Ablative Absolute construction, where the singular form ends in –e. Otherwise, the ablative singular ends in –i.
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- pueri per urbem currentes puellam conspexerunt.
The boys caught sight of the girl while they were running through the city.
- senex iuvenes stantes in foro vocavit.
The old man called the young men who were standing in the forum.
- mater tamen filium lacrimantem audire non potest.
However, the mother is not able to hear her daughter crying.
- magnopere gaudentes ex oppido egressi sunt.
They left the town rejoicing greatly.
- Romam ridens iter faciam.
I will travel to Rome smiling.
- miles defendens murum ab hostibus oppugnantibus necatus est.
The solider was killed by the attacking enemy while defending the wall.