Aeneid IV & VI (GCSE Latin 2018-19)


Cover

Aeneid IV & VI

from 4.279-396 and 6.450-476

Virgil

GCSE Latin set text 2018 & 2019

Christine Jongen, Dido, bronze sculpture, 2007-08.

Intro

The Aeneid

Dido and Aeneas, from a Roman fresco, Pompeian Third Style (10 BC - 45 AD), Pompeii, Italy

Virgil’s Aeneid is an epic poem written at the end of the 1st century BC, after Octavian had become Augustus, Rome’s first emperor, bringing an end to 100 years of civil wars.

The poem is modelled on the Greek epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey, which were written down in the 8th century BC. It follows the quest of Aeneas, a refugee from the Trojan War in Asia, to found a new city in the west. Although the core narrative of his wanderings covers just a few years, the poem constantly projects and resounds through 1,000 years of Roman history, providing a line of divine descent from Jupiter to Augustus.

The set text

The set text focuses on the fall out of the love affair between Aeneas and Dido, Queen of Carthage. Dido had taken a vow of chastity after her husband died, a vow which was broken when she fell for Aeneas. In an effort to conceal the shame of their affair, she has convinced herself that they got married in a cave while out on a hunting expedition.

Mercury, with his symbols, by Hendrik Goltzius (1611)

At the start of the set text, Aeneas has just been visited by Jupiter’s messenger, the god Mercury, who has told him to leave Carthage immediately and continue his quest to reach the coast of Italy. Aeneas realises he is in a very difficult situation and is concerned about how he will break the news to Dido, who is madly in love with him. The first thing he does is tell his men to get the fleet ready for departure (1). When Dido catches wind of Aeneas’ plans, she confronts him and begs him to reconsider (2). Aeneas stands firm, saying that he will always remember Dido, but that he would have stayed in Troy if he could have had a say in his own destiny (3). He then explains why he has to leave, and it is not through choice (4). Dido takes Aeneas’ excuses badly and has to be carried back to her bedchamber by her handmaidens. (5).

The set text then leaps forward through the poem. Dido and Aeneas are both in the underworld, the former because he needs to speak to the soul of his dead father, the latter because she is actually dead, having killed herself after Aeneas left Carthage. Aeneas addresses Dido’s spirit, and at last we see some of the personal sacrifice he had to make when he left her (6). This time it is Dido who is unmoved, and her phantom returns to that of her late husband, Sychaeus (7).

1

4.279-295

Aeneas, alarmed by the god’s message, orders his men to prepare to leave Carthage.

At vero Aeneas aspectu obmutuit amens,
arrectaeque horrore comae et vox faucibus haesit.280
ardet abire fuga dulcesque relinquere terras,
attonitus tanto monitu imperioque deorum.
heu quid agat? quo nunc reginam ambire furentem
audeat adfatu? quae prima exordia sumat?

But At indeed vero Aeneas Aeneas, greatly excited amens by the vision aspectu, was dumbstruck obmutuit, and -que his hair comae stood on end arrectae in terror horrore and et his voice vox stuck haesit in his throat faucibus. He longed ardet to go away abire in flight fuga and -que to leave behind relinquere the sweet dulces lands terras, astonished attonitus by such a great tanto warning monitu and -que by the power imperio of the gods deorum. Alas heu, what to do quid agat? With what quo address adfatu now nunc to dare audeat to approach ambire the seething furentem queen reginam? What quae opening words exordia to choose sumat first prima?


atque animum nunc huc celerem nunc dividit illuc285
in partesque rapit varias perque omnia versat.
haec alternanti potior sententia visa est:
Mnesthea Sergestumque vocat fortemque Serestum,
classem aptent taciti sociosque ad litora cogant,
arma parent et quae rebus sit causa novandis290
dissimulent;

And atque he divided dividit his racing mind celerem animum now nunc in this direction huc, now nunc in that direction illuc, and -que he took it rapit into in different varias parts partes and -que turned it versat through per everything omnia. This haec decision sententia seemed visa est preferable potior to him as he wavered alternanti: he called vocat Mnestheus Mnesthea and -que Sergestus Sergestum and -que brave fortem Serestus Serestum, to get ready aptent the fleet classem in silence taciti and -que assemble cogant the comrades socios on the shore ad litora, to prepare parent arms arma and et to conceal dissimulent what quae the reason causa was sit for changing novandis plans rebus;

sese interea, quando optima Dido
nesciat et tantos rumpi non speret amores,
temptaturum aditus et quae mollissima fandi
tempora, quis rebus dexter modus. ocius omnes
imperio laeti parent et iussa facessunt.295

(he said) that he sese meanwhile interea, since quando the excellent optima Dido Dido was unaware nesciat and et was not expecting non speret such a great tantos love amores to be broken rumpi, would attempt temptaturum approaches aditus and et what quae opportunities tempora were most agreeable mollissima for speaking fandi, what quis manner modus was fitting dexter for the situation rebus. All omnes swiftly ocius obeyed parent the command imperio happily laeti and et carried out facessunt the orders iussa.

2

4.296-319

Dido hears the news of the Trojans’ departure and confronts Aeneas.

At regina dolos (quis fallere possit amantem?)
praesensit, motusque excepit prima futuros
omnia tuta timens. eadem impia Fama furenti
detulit armari classem cursumque parari.
saevit inops animi totamque incensa per urbem300
bacchatur, qualis commotis excita sacris
Thyias, ubi audito stimulant trieterica Baccho
orgia nocturnusque vocat clamore Cithaeron.

But At the queen regina (who quis can possit deceive fallere a lover amantem?) had a foreboding of praesensit trickery dolos, and -que she first prima took news of excepit the imminent futuros movements motus, fearing timens everything omnia, (even) harmless things tuta. The same eadem wicked impia Rumour Fama reported detulit to her as she seethed furenti that the fleet classem was being armed armari and -que the voyage cursum was being prepared parari. She raged saevit, helpless inops of mind animi, and -que inflamed incensa, she wandered in a Bacchic frenzy bacchatur through per the whole totam city urbem, like qualis a Thyiad Thyias startled excita by the shaken commotis sacred emblems sacris, when ubi, after Bacchus is heard Baccho audito, the biennial trieterica orgies orgia stir (her) stimulant and -que Cithaeron Cithaeron at night nocturnus calls (her) vocat with its clamour clamore.


tandem his Aenean compellat vocibus ultro:
‘dissimulare etiam sperasti, perfide, tantum305
posse nefas tacitusque mea decedere terra?
nec te noster amor nec te data dextera quondam
nec moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido?

At last tandem she addressed compellat Aeneas Aenean further ultro with these words his vocibus: ‘Did you hope sperasti to be able posse also etiam to hide dissimulare such great tantum wickedness nefas, unfaithful man perfide, and -que to depart decedere from my land mea terra in silence tacitus? Does neither our love nec noster amor keep tenet you te, nor our right hands nec dextera once quondam pledged data (keep) you te, nor nec Dido Dido, about to die moritura from a cruel crudeli death funere?


quin etiam hiberno moliri sidere classem
et mediis properas Aquilonibus ire per altum,310
crudelis? quid, si non arva aliena domosque
ignotas peteres, et Troia antiqua maneret,
Troia per undosum peteretur classibus aequor?

Why do you hasten quin properas to labour at moliri your fleet classem even etiam under the winter stars hiberno sidere and et to go ire through the deep per altum in the middle of the North Winds mediis Aquilonibus, cruel man crudelis? Why quid, if si you were not seeking non peteres foreign aliena fields arva and -que unknown ignotas homes domos, and et ancient antiqua Troy Troia stood maneret, would Troy be sought Troia peteretur with your fleets classibus through per the wavy undosum sea aequor?


mene fugis? per ego has lacrimas dextramque tuam te
(quando aliud mihi iam miserae nihil ipsa reliqui),315
per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos,
si bene quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quicquam
dulce meum, miserere domus labentis et istam,
oro, si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue mentem.’

Is it me you are fleeing? mene fugis I am begging ego oro you te by per these has tears lacrimas and -que your tuam right hand dextram (since quando I myself ipsa have left reliqui nothing nihil else aliud for wretched me miserae mihi any longer iam), by per our nostra marriage, conubia by per the wedlock hymenaeos begun inceptos, if si I have earned merui well bene anything quid from de you te, or aut anything quicquam of mine meum was fuit sweet dulce to you tibi, pity miserere the house domus slipping away labentis and et, if si (there is) some place quis locus still adhuc for entreaties precibus, put away exue this istam intention mentem.

3

4.331-344

Aeneas replies that there was no marriage between him and Dido, and that Troy was his greatest love.

Dixerat. ille Iovis monitis immota tenebat
lumina et obnixus curam sub corde premebat.
tandem pauca refert: ‘ego te, quae plurima fando
enumerare vales, numquam, regina, negabo
promeritam, nec me meminisse pigebit Elissae335
dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos regit artus.

She had spoken Dixerat. He ille was holding tenebat his eyes lumina motionless immota due to the warnings monitis of Jupiter Iovis and et, struggling obnixus, repressed premebat his distress curam beneath sub his heart corde. Finally tandem he spoke refert a little pauca: ‘I will never deny ego numquam negabo, o queen regina, that you te have deserved promeritam the greatest number of things plurima which quae you are able vales to recount enumerare in speech fando, nor nec shall I be sorry me pigebit to remember meminisse Elissa Elissae, while dum I myself am mindful ipse memor of myself mei, while dum breath spiritus guides regit these hos limbs artus.


pro re pauca loquar. neque ego hanc abscondere furto
speravi (ne finge) fugam, nec coniugis umquam
praetendi taedas aut haec in foedera veni.
me si fata meis paterentur ducere vitam340
auspiciis et sponte mea componere curas,
urbem Troianam primum dulcisque meorum
reliquias colerem, Priami tecta alta manerent,
et recidiva manu posuissem Pergama victis.

I shall say loquar a few things pauca in my defence pro re. Neither neque did I hope ego speravi to hide abscondere this hanc flight fugam in secret furto (do not imagine it ne finge), nor nec ever umquam did I hold forth praetendi wedding coniugis torches taedas or aut come veni into in these haec agreements foedera. If si the fates fata allowed paterentur me me to lead ducere my life vitam by my own authority meis auspiciis and et to soothe componere my concerns curas by my own will mea sponte, first of all primum I would cherish colerem the city urbem of Troy Troianam and -que the sweet dulcis remnants reliquias of my people meorum, the high roofs alta tecta of Priam Priami would remain manerent, and et I would have set up posuissem by hand manu a renewed Pergamum recidiva Pergama for the vanquished victis.

4

4.345-361

Aeneas provides more reasons for his departure – he is heading to Italy for the sake of destiny, his dead father, Anchises, and Jupiter himself.

sed nunc Italiam magnam Gryneus Apollo,345
Italiam Lyciae iussere capessere sortes;
hic amor, haec patria est. si te Karthaginis arces
Phoenissam Libycaeque aspectus detinet urbis,
quae tandem Ausonia Teucros considere terra
invidia est? et nos fas extera quaerere regna.350

But sed now nunc mighty magnam Italy Italiam Grynean Gryneus Apollo Apollo, Italy Italiam the Lycian oracles Lyciae sortes have given orders iussere to strive for capessere. This hic is est my love amor, this is haec my country patria. If si the citadels arces of Carthage Karthaginis and -que the sight aspectus of the Libyan city Libycae urbis keep detinet you te, a Phoenician Phoenissam, what quae envy invidia is there est, then tandem, that Trojans Teucros settle considere in the land of Ausonia Ausonia terra? And et it is ordained fas that we nos seek quaerere a kingdom regna abroad extera.


me patris Anchisae, quotiens umentibus umbris
nox operit terras, quotiens astra ignea surgunt,
admonet in somnis et turbida terret imago;
me puer Ascanius capitisque iniuria cari,
quem regno Hesperiae fraudo et fatalibus arvis.355

As often as quotiens night nox covers operit the lands terras with humid umentibus shades umbris, as often as quotiens the fiery ignea stars astra rise surgunt, the troubled turbida image imago of my father Anchises patris Anchisae advises admonet me me in my sleep in somnis and et terrifies terret me me. My boy Ascanius puer Ascanius and -que the injustice iniuria of the dear cari soul capitis, whom quem I am cheating out of a kingdom fraudo regno in Hesperia Hesperiae and et the fields arvis of destiny fatalibus.


nunc etiam interpres divum Iove missus ab ipso
(testor utrumque caput) celeres mandata per auras
detulit: ipse deum manifesto in lumine vidi
intrantem muros vocemque his auribus hausi.
desine meque tuis incendere teque querelis;360
Italiam non sponte sequor.’

Even etiam now nunc the mediator interpres of the gods divum, sent missus by Jupiter himself ab Iove ipso, (I swear testor by the head caput of each of us utrumque) has brought down detulit the orders mandata through per the swift celeres breezes auras: I myself saw ipse vidi the god deum in clear daylight in manifesto lumine entering intrantem the walls muros and -que I drank deep hausi his voice vocem with these ears his auribus. Stop desine burning incendere both -que me me and -que you te with your grievances tuis querelis; I follow sequor Italy Italiam not by my own desire non sponte.’

5

4.381-396

Dido curses Aeneas and flees to her palace. Aeneas does not follow her.

‘i, sequere Italiam ventis, pete regna per undas.
spero equidem mediis, si quid pia numina possunt,
supplicia hausurum scopulis et nomine Dido
saepe vocaturum. sequar atris ignibus absens
et, cum frigida mors anima seduxerit artus,385
omnibus umbra locis adero. dabis, improbe, poenas.
audiam et haec Manis veniet mihi fama sub imos.’

‘Go i, follow sequere Italy Italiam in the winds ventis, seek pete the kingdom regna through per the waves undas. Of course I hope spero equidem, if si the righteous pia gods numina are capable of possunt anything quid, that you will drink deep hausurum torments supplicia on the rocks between mediis scopulis and that often et saepe you will call out vocaturum “Dido” Dido by name nomine. Though absent absens, I will follow sequar with black fires atris ignibus and et, when cum cold frigida death mors has separated seduxerit your limbs artus from your spirit anima, I will be present adero as a shade umbra in every region omnibus locis. You will pay the penalty dabis poenas, wicked man improbe, I shall hear audiam and et this news haec fama will come veniet to me mihi under the depths sub imos of Hades Manis.’

Dido reacts furiously to Aeneas’ speech. The prescribed text omits the first 30 lines of her response, in which she regrets welcoming the shipwrecked Trojans and dismisses Aeneas’ claims that he is leaving due to the orders of the gods.

i … sequere … pete – these multiple direct commands for Aeneas to leave show that Dido has given up trying to persuade him to stay.

Aeneas abandons Dido.

i – “is scornful” (Austin)

sequere Italiam – echoes Italiam … sequor in line 362. Dido uses Aeneas’ own words against him.

ventis, per undas – Dido highlights the perils of Aeneas’ journey. The fact he is choosing to risk these dangers rather than stay in Carthage makes his decision especially painful to her.

spero equidem – “I hope, of course…” equidem signifies a concession by Dido: she feels no compunction to hide her spite.

mediis scopulis – “on the rocks midway” i.e. between Carthage and Italy. Note the enclosing word order, with the suffering Aeneas literally sandwiched between these two words.

si quid = si aliquid (“if anything”).

possunt – “are capable (of anything).” Here the verb possum takes a object noun (quid) rather than an infinitive.

pia numina – “the pious gods.” pius is often used by Virgil to describe Aeneas’ dutiful attitude towards the gods, and Dido’s caustic implication is that Aeneas is impius.

hausurum = te hausurum esse (“that you will drain”). Similarly, vocaturum = (te) vocaturum esse.

supplicia hausurum – a striking metaphor, lit. “you will drain punishment(s).” West captures it nicely with “you will drain a bitter cup.”

Dido – probably vocative.

atris ignibus – “with black fires,” i.e. carrying funeral torches, like those carried by the avenging Furies. They are literally black due to smoke, but also because of the hellish image of black fire (such as that used against by Allecto against Turnus in Book 7 – VII.456).

absens – concessive: “though far way.” Dido is still able to haunt Aeneas through his recollection of her.

cum … artus – “when icy death has separated your limbs from your soul.” The idea that body and soul are unjoined in death was common in the ancient world, and essential for our understanding of the underworld as it is presented in Book 6. The positioning of seduxerit reflects the action being described (from this verb comes the English “seduce:” to take someone away from their duty).

umbra – “as a ghost” (predicate nominative), i.e. her ghost in the underworld. Throughout this passage, Dido wrongly assumes that her anger and bitterness will survive her death.

sequar … adero – note the symmetry of this long sentence, as Dido chases then traps Aeneas:

sequar
absens atribus ignibus
et (cum frigida…artus)
umbra omnibus locis
adero

The climactic adero is particularly menacing.

audiam – it is not clear how Dido, in the underworld, will hear how Aeneas is being tormented in the world above, but her dark wishes are not obliged to adhere to logic.

haec … imos – essentially repeats the sense of audiam (tautology), but now elaborating on the glee Dido thinks she will feel.


his medium dictis sermonem abrumpit et auras
aegra fugit seque ex oculis avertit et aufert,
linquens multa metu cunctantem et multa parantem390
dicere. suscipiunt famulae conlapsaque membra
marmoreo referunt thalamo stratisque reponunt.

With these words his dictis she broke off abrumpit her speech sermonem in the middle medium and et fled fugit the open air auras in her sickness aegra and -que turned herself away avertit se from his eyes ex oculis and took herself away et aufert, leaving linquens him in much hesitation cunctantem multa due to fear metu and et preparing parantem to say dicere many things multa. Her handmaids famulae lifted her up suscipiunt and -que returned referunt her collapsed limbs conlapsa membra to the marble chamber marmoreo thalamo and -que placed her reponunt on the bed stratis.”

his medium dictis sermonem – the interlocking word order (synchysis) aptly conveys the sense of the conversation being cut short.

auras fugit – “she fled indoors” (lit. “she fled the air”).

fugit, avertit, aufert – a single event, described by three verbs to highlight its significance: this is the last time Aeneas will see Dido alive.

multa cunctantem – “in much hesitation.” multa is an internal accusative (≈ an adverb).

metu – “because of fear” (causal ablative), i.e. fear of making matters worse.

cunctantem, parantem – tautological. After Dido’s forceful words and dramatic exit, Aeneas is left stunned and stuttering. Note that parantem helps to contrast the approach of each – Aeneas must think carefully and prepare his speech, Dido’s words burst forth angrily and impulsively.

dicere – the position of the word (enjambment) suits the action perfectly, since it would be preceded by a slight pause when read aloud.

marmoreo thalamo – “to her marble chamber;” dative case, but here equivalent to ad + accusative.


at pius Aeneas, quamquam lenire dolentem
solando cupit et dictis avertere curas,
multa gemens magnoque animum labefactus amore395
iussa tamen divum exsequitur classemque revisit.

But at dutiful Aeneas pius Aeneas, although quamquam he wanted cupit to soothe lenire her as she grieved dolentem by comforting her solando and et to turn away avertere her troubles curas with his words dictis, groaning a lot gemens multa and -que shaken labefactus in his heart animum by a great love magno amore, nevertheless tamen he carried out exsequitur the orders iussa of the gods divum and -que went back to revisit his fleet classem.

at pius Aeneas – especially appropriate here, considering what he is enduring for the sake of duty.

quamquam … curas – these personal desires are suppressed, and have to be, if Aeneas is to carry out the orders of the gods. Note the repeated sense (tautology) of lenire dolentem and avertere curas.

multa gemens – “with much groaning” (see note on multa cunctantem above). A visceral reaction: Aeneas, unable to speak, instead emits unitelligible sounds of pain and despair. The verb gemo is often used of mourners (perhaps here foreshadowing Dido’s death) and animals (which, like Aeneas here, are unable to talk).

animum labefactus – “shaken in his heart.” animum is an accusative of respect (used for expressing the location or focus of an action).

exsequitur, revisit – these verbs seem functional and devoid of emotion following everything which precedes them. Aeneas is almost resigned to his duty.

6

6.450-466

Aeneas catches sight of Dido in the underworld and addresses her.

inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido450
errabat silva in magna; quam Troius heros
ut primum iuxta stetit agnovitque per umbras
obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense
aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam,
demisit lacrimas dulcique adfatus amore est:455

Among these inter quas was wandering errabat in the great wood in magna silva Phoenician Dido Phoenissa Dido, fresh recens from her wound a vulnere; as soon as ut primum the Trojan hero Troius heros stood stetit alongside iuxta and -que recognised her agnovit quam dim obscuram through the shadows per umbras, just like qualem the moon lunam someone qui either aut sees videt or aut thinks putat he has seen vidisse rising surgere through per the clouds nubila in the early month primo mense, he sent down demisit tears lacrimas and -que addressed her adfatus with sweet love dulci amore:


‘Infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo
venerat exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam?
funeris heu tibi causa fui? per sidera iuro,
per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est,
invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.460

‘Unfortunate Dido Infelix Dido, then ergo the message nuntius is est true verus (which) had come venerat to me mihi, that you were dead exstinctam and -que had sought secutam the end extrema with a sword ferro? Alas heu, was I fui the cause causa of death for you funeris tibi? I swear iuro by the stars per sidera, by the world above per superos, and et if si there is est any qua faith fides under sub the innermost ima earth tellure, against my will invitus, o queen regina, I departed cessi from your shore de tuo litore.


sed me iussa deum, quae nunc has ire per umbras,
per loca senta situ cogunt noctemque profundam,
imperiis egere suis; nec credere quivi
hunc tantum tibi me discessu ferre dolorem.
siste gradum teque aspectu ne subtrahe nostro.465
quem fugis? extremum fato quod te adloquor hoc est.’

But sed the orders iussa of the gods deum, which quae now nunc compel me cogunt me to go ire through these shadows per has umbras, through a region per loca squalid senta due to neglect situ, and -que deep profundam night noctem, forced me egere with their commands suis imperiis; nor nec was I able quivi to believe credere that I was bringing ferre this great grief hunc tantum dolorem to you tibi through my departure me discessu. Stop siste your step gradum and -que do not withdraw ne subtrahe yourself te from my sight aspectu nostro. Whom do you flee quem fugis? This is the last time which hoc est extremum quod I may talk to you adloquor te due to fate fato.’

7

6.467-476

Dido says nothing in reply and returns to her husband, Sychaeus.

talibus Aeneas ardentem et torva tuentem
lenibat dictis animum lacrimasque ciebat.
illa solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat
nec magis incepto vultum sermone movetur470
quam si dura silex aut stet Marpesia cautes.

With such words talibus dictis Aeneas Aeneas tried to soften lenibat her soul animum, burning ardentem and et gazing tuentem wildly torva, and -que he shed ciebat tears lacrimas. She turned away illa aversa and kept tenebat her eyes fixed oculos fixos on the ground solo, nor nec was she moved movetur in expression vultum any more magis at the start of his speech incepto sermone than quam if si she stood stet as hard flint dura silex or aut a Marpesian crag Marpesia cautes.


tandem corripuit sese atque inimica refugit
in nemus umbriferum, coniunx ubi pristinus illi
respondet curis aequatque Sychaeus amorem.
nec minus Aeneas, casu percussus iniquo475
prosequitur lacrimis longe et miseratur euntem.

Finally tandem she took herself off corripuit sese and atque fled back refugit in hostility inimica into the shade-bearing grove in umbriferum nemus, where ubi her former husband coniunx pristinus responded respondet to her concerns illi curis and -que Sychaeus Sychaeus matched aequat her love amorem. Nevertheless nec minus Aeneas Aeneas, struck percussus by her unjust fate casu iniquo, escorted her prosequitur from afar longe with tears lacrimis and et pitied miseratur her as she went euntem.

Resources

In Our Time: The Aeneid
BBC Radio discussion about the content, history and impact of the Aeneid.

Dido’s Lament sung by Jessye Norman
A stunning rendition of the aria “When I am laid in earth” from the opera Dido and Aeneas by Henry Purcell.

Text

IV 279-319

At vero Aeneas aspectu obmutuit amens,
arrectaeque horrore comae et vox faucibus haesit.280
ardet abire fuga dulcesque relinquere terras,
attonitus tanto monitu imperioque deorum.
heu quid agat? quo nunc reginam ambire furentem
audeat adfatu? quae prima exordia sumat?
atque animum nunc huc celerem nunc dividit illuc285
in partesque rapit varias perque omnia versat.
haec alternanti potior sententia visa est:
Mnesthea Sergestumque vocat fortemque Serestum,
classem aptent taciti sociosque ad litora cogant,
arma parent et quae rebus sit causa novandis290
dissimulent; sese interea, quando optima Dido
nesciat et tantos rumpi non speret amores,
temptaturum aditus et quae mollissima fandi
tempora, quis rebus dexter modus. ocius omnes
imperio laeti parent et iussa facessunt.295
At regina dolos (quis fallere possit amantem?)
praesensit, motusque excepit prima futuros
omnia tuta timens. eadem impia Fama furenti
detulit armari classem cursumque parari.
saevit inops animi totamque incensa per urbem300
bacchatur, qualis commotis excita sacris
Thyias, ubi audito stimulant trieterica Baccho
orgia nocturnusque vocat clamore Cithaeron.
tandem his Aenean compellat vocibus ultro:
‘dissimulare etiam sperasti, perfide, tantum305
posse nefas tacitusque mea decedere terra?
nec te noster amor nec te data dextera quondam
nec moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido?
quin etiam hiberno moliri sidere classem
et mediis properas Aquilonibus ire per altum,310
crudelis? quid, si non arva aliena domosque
ignotas peteres, et Troia antiqua maneret,
Troia per undosum peteretur classibus aequor?
mene fugis? per ego has lacrimas dextramque tuam te
(quando aliud mihi iam miserae nihil ipsa reliqui),315
per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos,
si bene quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quicquam
dulce meum, miserere domus labentis et istam,
oro, si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue mentem.’

IV 331-361

Dixerat. ille Iovis monitis immota tenebat
lumina et obnixus curam sub corde premebat.
tandem pauca refert: ‘ego te, quae plurima fando
enumerare vales, numquam, regina, negabo
promeritam, nec me meminisse pigebit Elissae335
dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos regit artus.
pro re pauca loquar. neque ego hanc abscondere furto
speravi (ne finge) fugam, nec coniugis umquam
praetendi taedas aut haec in foedera veni.
me si fata meis paterentur ducere vitam340
auspiciis et sponte mea componere curas,
urbem Troianam primum dulcisque meorum
reliquias colerem, Priami tecta alta manerent,
et recidiva manu posuissem Pergama victis.
sed nunc Italiam magnam Gryneus Apollo,345
Italiam Lyciae iussere capessere sortes;
hic amor, haec patria est. si te Karthaginis arces
Phoenissam Libycaeque aspectus detinet urbis,
quae tandem Ausonia Teucros considere terra
invidia est? et nos fas extera quaerere regna.350
me patris Anchisae, quotiens umentibus umbris
nox operit terras, quotiens astra ignea surgunt,
admonet in somnis et turbida terret imago;
me puer Ascanius capitisque iniuria cari,
quem regno Hesperiae fraudo et fatalibus arvis.355
nunc etiam interpres divum Iove missus ab ipso
(testor utrumque caput) celeres mandata per auras
detulit: ipse deum manifesto in lumine vidi
intrantem muros vocemque his auribus hausi.
desine meque tuis incendere teque querelis;360
Italiam non sponte sequor.’

IV 381-396

‘i, sequere Italiam ventis, pete regna per undas.
spero equidem mediis, si quid pia numina possunt,
supplicia hausurum scopulis et nomine Dido
saepe vocaturum. sequar atris ignibus absens
et, cum frigida mors anima seduxerit artus,385
omnibus umbra locis adero. dabis, improbe, poenas.
audiam et haec Manis veniet mihi fama sub imos.’
his medium dictis sermonem abrumpit et auras
aegra fugit seque ex oculis avertit et aufert,
linquens multa metu cunctantem et multa parantem390
dicere. suscipiunt famulae conlapsaque membra
marmoreo referunt thalamo stratisque reponunt.
at pius Aeneas, quamquam lenire dolentem
solando cupit et dictis avertere curas,
multa gemens magnoque animum labefactus amore395
iussa tamen divum exsequitur classemque revisit.

VI 450-476

inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido450
errabat silva in magna; quam Troius heros
ut primum iuxta stetit agnovitque per umbras
obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense
aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam,
demisit lacrimas dulcique adfatus amore est:455
‘Infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo
venerat exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam?
funeris heu tibi causa fui? per sidera iuro,
per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est,
invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.460
sed me iussa deum, quae nunc has ire per umbras,
per loca senta situ cogunt noctemque profundam,
imperiis egere suis; nec credere quivi
hunc tantum tibi me discessu ferre dolorem.
siste gradum teque aspectu ne subtrahe nostro.465
quem fugis? extremum fato quod te adloquor hoc est.’
talibus Aeneas ardentem et torva tuentem
lenibat dictis animum lacrimasque ciebat.
illa solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat
nec magis incepto vultum sermone movetur470
quam si dura silex aut stet Marpesia cautes.
tandem corripuit sese atque inimica refugit
in nemus umbriferum, coniunx ubi pristinus illi
respondet curis aequatque Sychaeus amorem.
nec minus Aeneas, casu percussus iniquo475
prosequitur lacrimis longe et miseratur euntem.