Xenophon Unseens


Xenophon Unseen 6.1

The Persian king Cyrus makes clever use of an embassy sent by the friendly Indian king.

Password for 6.1:

Greek

ἦλθον δ’ ἐν τούτῳ τῷ χρόνῳ παρὰ τοῦ Ἰνδοῦ βασιλέως πρέσβεις χρήματα φέροντες· καὶ τῷ Κύρῳ ἐπήγγειλαν ὅτι ἐκεῖνος ἐπιστέλλει τοιάδε· “ἐγώ, ὦ Κῦρε, ἥδομαι ὅτι μοι ἤγγειλας ὧν ἐδέου, καὶ βουλόμενός σοι φίλος εἶναι πέμπω χρήματα. ἐὰν δὲ ἄλλων δέῃ, μεταπέμπου. οἱ δὲ πρέσβεις ὅ τι ἂν σὺ κελεύῃς πράξουσιν.” ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Κῦρος εἶπε· “κελεύω οὖν τοὺς μὲν ἄλλους μένοντας ἔνθα φυλάττειν τὰ χρήματα καὶ ζῆν ὅπως ἂν βούλησθε. τρεῖς δὲ ὑμῶν, ἐλθόντες εἰς τὸ τῶν πολεμίων στρατόπεδον, προσποιεῖσθε περὶ συμμαχίας ὑπὲρ τοῦ βασιλέως αὐτοῖς διαλέγεσθαι. καὶ μαθόντες ὅ τι ἂν λέγωσί τε καὶ ποιῶσιν, ὡς τάχιστα ἀπαγγείλατ’ ἐμοί. οἱ γὰρ κατάσκοποι ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἀπαγγέλλουσιν ἢ ὅ τι πάντες ἤδη ἴσασιν. ὑμεῖς δὲ τί ἐν νῷ ἔχουσιν οἱ πολέμιοι ῥᾳδίως γνώσεσθε.” οἱ δὲ Ἰνδοὶ παρὰ τῷ Κύρῳ ἐδείπνουν, καὶ τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ τρεῖς αὐτῶν ἀφωρμήθησαν, ὑποσχόμενοι, ὅσα ἂν δύνωνται ἐκ τῶν πολεμίων μαθόντες, ὡς τάχιστα ἥξειν.

English

Xenophon Unseen 6.2

The Spartan general Eteonicus prevents his men from treacherously attacking an ally.

Greek

οἱ δὲ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ναυμαχίᾳ ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἡττηθέντες εἰς τὴν Χίον ἀπέφυγον. καὶ ἕως μὲν θέρος ἦν μισθοῦ κατὰ τὴν χώραν ἐργαζόμενοι ἐτρέφοντο . ἐπεὶ δὲ χειμὼν ἐγένετο καὶ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια οὐκ εἶχον, πολλοὶ τῶν ναυτῶν τοῖς Χίοις καίπερ συμμάχοις οὖσιν ἐπιθέσθαι ἐπεβούλευον. καὶ οἱ συνομόσαντες κάλαμον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ φέρειν συνέβησαν, ἵνα ἀλλήλοις διδάξειαν ὁπόσοι εἶεν. ἐπεὶ δὲ ταῦτ’ ἔγνω, Ἐτεόνικος ὁ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων στρατηγός, ἄγων μεθ’ ἑαυτοῦ ἄνδρας πεντεκαίδεκα ἐγχειρίδια ἔχοντας, ἐπορεύετο κατὰ τὴν πόλιν. καὶ ἐντυχὼν ναύτῃ κάλαμον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ ἔχοντι ἀπέκτεινεν. θορύβου δὲ γενομένου καὶ ἐρωτώντων τινῶν διὰ τί ἀπέθανεν ὁ ἄνθρωπος, “ἀπέκτεινα αὐτόν” ἔφη Ἐτεόνικος “ἐπεὶ τὸν κάλαμον εἶχε.” καὶ πυθόμενοι ταῦτα πάντες ὅσοι εἶχον τοὺς καλάμους, δεδιότες μὴ τὰ αὐτὰ πάθοιεν, ἀπέβαλον. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Ἐτεόνικος συγκαλέσας τοῦς Χίους χρήματα ἐκέλευσεν εἰσφέρειν, ὅπως οἱ ναῦται λάβωσι μισθόν, προσιὼν δὲ τούτους καθ’ ἕκαστον παρεμυθεῖτο , ὥσπερ τῆς συνωμοσίας οὐδὲν εἰδώς.

English

After the Spartans had been defeated by the Athenians in a sea-battle, they fled to Chios. And while it was summer, they supported themselves by working for pay throughout the land. But when winter came and they did not have provisions, many of the sailors started plotting to attack the Chians, even though they were allies. Those who had conspired agreed to carry a reed in their hand, so that they could inform each other how many they were. When he found out about this, Eteonicus the Spartan general went through the city, taking with him fifteen men holding daggers. And when he encountered a sailor holding a reed in his hand, he killed him. When a commotion arose and some people were asking why the man had been killed, Eteonicus said ‘I killed him because he was holding a reed.’ When they heard this, all those who were holding reeds, fearing that they would suffer the same things, threw them away. After this, Eteonicus called the Chians together and ordered them to contribute money, so that the sailors would get their pay, and he went to these men each in turn and encouraged them, as if he knew nothing of the conspiracy.

Hellenica 2.1.1–5 (adapted)


Xenophon Unseen 6.6

The oligarchic leader Critias accuses the more moderate Theramenes of being a traitor and a turncoat.

Greek

οὐ μόνον ὡς ἐχθρῷ αὐτῷ προσήκει ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς προδότῃ ὑμῶν τε καὶ ἡμῶν διδόναι τὴν δίκην. καίτοι τοσούτῳ μὲν δεινότερον προδοσία πολέμου, ὅσῳ χαλεπώτερον φυλάξασθαι τὸ ἀφανὲς τοῦ φανεροῦ, τοσούτῳ δ’ ἔχθιον, ὅσῳ πολεμίοις μὲν ἄνθρωποι καὶ σπένδονται καὶ αὖθις πιστοὶ γίγνονται, ὃν δ’ ἂν προδιδόντα λαμβάνωσι, τούτῳ οὔτε ἐσπείσατο πώποτε οὐδεὶς οὔτ’ ἐπίστευσε τοῦ λοιποῦ. ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε ὅτι οὐ καινὰ ταῦτα οὗτος ποιεῖ, ἀλλὰ φύσει προδότης ἐστίν, ἀναμνήσω ὑμᾶς τὰ τούτῳ πεπραγμένα. οὗτος γὰρ ἐξ ἀρχῆς μὲν τιμώμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου κατὰ τὸν πατέρα Ἅγνωνα , προπετέστατος ἐγένετο τὴν δημοκρατίαν μεταστῆσαι εἰς τοὺς τετρακοσίους, καὶ ἐπρώτευεν ἐν ἐκείνοις. ἐπεὶ δ’ ᾔσθετο ἀντίπαλόν τι τῇ ὀλιγαρχίᾳ συνιστάμενον, πρῶτος αὖ ἡγεμὼν τῷ δήμῳ ἐπ’ ἐκείνους ἐγένετο. δεῖ δέ, Θηράμενες , ἄνδρα τὸν ἄξιον ζῆν οὐ προάγειν μὲν δεινὸν εἶναι εἰς πράγματα τοὺς συνόντας, ἂν δέ τι ἀντικόπτῃ , εὐθὺς μεταβάλλεσθαι , ἀλλ’ ὥσπερ ἐν νηὶ διαπονεῖσθαι, ἕως ἂν εἰς οὖρον καταστῶσιν· εἰ δὲ μή, πῶς ἂν ἀφίκοιντό ποτε ἔνθα δεῖ, εἰ ἐπειδάν τι ἀντικόψῃ, εὐθὺς εἰς τἀναντία πλέοιεν.

English

‘It is fitting for him to pay the penalty not only as an enemy but also as a traitor to both you and us. And indeed so much more terrible a thing is treachery is than war, to the extent that it is more difficult to guard against the unseen than against what is visible; and so much more hateful, to the extent that men make peace treaties with their enemies and they become trustworthy again, but whoever they catch betraying them, with this man no-one ever made a peace treaty or trusted him in the future. So that you may know that these things that this man is doing are not new, but that he is a traitor by nature, I will remind you of the things done by him. For this man, honoured by the people from the beginning like his father Hagon, became very eager to change the democracy to the Four Hundred, and he was a leader among them. But when he perceived that some opposition to the oligarchy was gathering, again he became first leader for the people against them. But, Theramanes, a man who deserves to live must not be clever at leading his companions into troubles, but if there is some obstacle, immediately change course – but, just as on a ship, must work through until they come to a fair wind; otherwise, how would they ever reach where they needed to, if whenever there was some obstacle they immediately sailed in the opposite direction?’

Hellenica 2.3.29–31 (with omissions)


Xenophon Unseen 6.7

Xenophon describes how the Spartan king Agesilaus refused to storm Corinth on the grounds that this would reduce the number of Greeks available to fight the Persians.

Greek

τίνα τις οἶδεν ἄλλον στρατηγὸν πόλιν οὐκ ἐθέλοντα αἱρεῖν συμφορὰν
νομίζοντα τὸ νικᾶν ἐν τῷ πρὸς Ἕλληνας πολέμῳ; ἐκεῖνος τοίνυν,
ἀγγελίας μὲν ἐλθούσης αὐτῷ, ὡς ἐν τῇ ἐν Κορίνθῳ μάχῃ ὀκτὼ μὲν
Λακεδαιμονίων, ἐγγὺς δὲ μύριοι τῶν πολεμίων τεθναῖεν, οὐκ ἐφησθεὶς
φανερὸς ἐγένετο, ἀλλ’ εἶπεν ἄρα “φεῦ σου, Ἑλλάς, ὁπότε οἱ νῦν
τεθνηκότες ἱκανοὶ ἦσαν ζῶντες νικᾶν μαχόμενοι πάντας τοὺς
βαρβάρους.” Κορινθίων γε μὴν τῶν φευγόντων λεγόντων, ὅτι
ἐνδίδοιτο αὐτοῖς πόλις, καὶ μηχανὰς ἐπιδεικνύντων, αἷς πάντως
ἤλπιζον ἂν ἑλεῖν τὰ τείχη, οὐκ ἤθελε προσβάλλειν, λέγων ὅτι οὐκ
ἀνδραποδίζεσθαι δέοι Ἑλληνίδας πόλεις, ἀλλὰ σωφρονίζειν. “εἰ δὲ
τοὺς ἁμαρτάνοντας” ἔφη “ἡμῶν αὐτῶν ἀφανιοῦμεν, ὁρᾶν χρή, μὴ οὐδ’
ἕξομεν μεθ’ ὅτου τῶν βαρβάρων κρατήσομεν.” ἐπεμελήθη δὲ τίς ἄλλος
πώποτε πλὴν Ἀγησίλαος ὅπως βασιλεὺς κακὰ ἔχων μὴ δυνήσεται τοῖς
Ἕλλησι πράγματα παρέχειν; ὃς καὶ πολεμούσης τῆς πατρίδος πρὸς
Ἕλληνας ὅμως τοῦ κοινοῦ ἀγαθοῦ τῇ Ἑλλάδι οὐκ ἠμέλησεν, ἀλλ’
ἐξέπλευσεν τι δύναιτο κακὸν ποιήσων τὸν βάρβαρον.

English

What other general does anyone know of who either did not want to take a city or
thought victory in the war against Greeks was a disaster? That man accordingly,
when news came to him that in the battle at Corinth eight
of the Spartans and nearly ten thousand of the enemy had been killed, clearly
did not feel pleasure, but moreover said ‘Alas for you, Greece, when those who
have now died were sufficient, if they were living, to fight and defeat all the
barbarians!’ Indeed, when the Corinthian fugitives said that
the city was being handed over to them and pointed out the war engines with which wholly
they expected to take the walls, he did not want to attack, saying that it
was necessary not to enslave Greek cities but to chasten them. ‘But if’
he said ‘we destroy those of ourselves who are erring, we must beware in case
we do not have that with which we shall overcome the barbarians.’ Who else ever
except Agesilaus took care that the king of Persia should have troubles and not be able
to cause problems for the Greeks? Even when his homeland was fighting against
Greeks, he nevertheless did not neglect the common good for Greece, but
sailed out to do what harm he could to the barbarian.

Agesilaus 7.4–7 (with omissions)


Xenophon Unseen 6.8

Cyrus trains his troops in the use of equipment for fighting at close quarters.

Greek

ἐν ᾧ δὲ οἱ πολέμιοι ἐλέγοντο μὲν προσιέναι, παρῆσαν δὲ οὐδέπω, ἐν
τούτῳ ἐπειρᾶτο ὁ Κῦρος ἀσκεῖν μὲν τὰ σώματα τῶν μεθ’ ἑαυτοῦ εἰς
ἰσχύν, διδάσκειν δὲ τὰ τακτικά , θήγειν δὲ τὰς ψυχὰς εἰς τὰ πολεμικά .
καὶ πρῶτον μὲν λαβὼν παρὰ Κυαξάρου ὑπηρέτας προσέταξεν ἑκάστοις
τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἱκανῶς ὧν ἐδέοντο πάντα πεποιημένα παρασχεῖν·
τοῦτο δὲ παρασκευάσας οὐδὲν αὐτοῖς ἐλελοίπει ἄλλο ἢ ἀσκεῖν τὰ ἀμφὶ
τὸν πόλεμον, ἐκεῖνο δοκῶν καταμεμαθηκέναι ὅτι οὗτοι κράτιστοι ἕκαστα
γίγνονται οἳ ἂν ἀφέμενοι τοῦ πολλοῖς προσέχειν τὸν νοῦν ἐπὶ ἓν ἔργον
τράπωνται . καὶ αὐτῶν δὲ τῶν πολεμικῶν περιελὼν καὶ τὸ τόξῳ μελετᾶν
καὶ ἀκοντίῳ κατέλιπε τοῦτο μόνον αὐτοῖς τὸ σὺν μαχαίρᾳ καὶ γέρρῳ καὶ
θώρακι μάχεσθαι· ὥστε εὐθὺς αὐτῶν παρεσκεύασε τὰς γνώμας ὡς
ὁμόσε ἰτέον εἴη τοῖς πολεμίοις, ἢ ὁμολογητέον μηδενὸς εἶναι ἀξίους
συμμάχους· τοῦτο δὲ χαλεπὸν ὁμολογῆσαι οἵτινες ἂν εἰδῶσιν ὅτι οὐδὲ
δι’ ἓν ἄλλο τρέφονται ἢ ὅπως μαχοῦνται ὑπὲρ τῶν τρεφόντων.

English

While the enemy were said to be approaching but had not yet arrived, Cyrus meanwhile tried to train the bodies of the men with him for strength, to teach them things to do with tactics and to sharpen their minds for warfare. First, having received assistants from Cyaxares, he instructed them to provide sufficiently for each of the soldiers all the manufactured things that they needed. When he had prepared this, he had left nothing else for them other to do than practise the things of war, thinking he had thoroughly learned this – that those men become most powerful at each thing who, abandoning the devoting of their mind to many things, turn their attention to one task. And when he had taken away from these things of war themselves both practising with the bow and practising with the javelin, he left only this one thing for them – fighting with short sword and wicker shield and breastplate; as a result he immediately prepared their minds that they must go to close quarters with the enemy, or else confess that they were worth nothing as allies; and this is difficult to admit for any men who know that they are being supported for no one other purpose than so that they will fight for those supporting them.

Cyropaedia 2.1.20–1


Xenophon Unseen 6.9

The generals who commanded the Athenian fleet in the battle of Arginusae (406 BC)
are called to account in the assembly for failing to pick up survivors from wrecked
ships.

Greek

μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἐκκλησία ἐγένετο, ἐν ᾗ τῶν στρατηγῶν κατηγόρουν
ἄλλοι τε καὶ Θηραμένης μάλιστα, δικαίους εἶναι λόγον ὑποσχεῖν διότι
οὐκ ἀνείλοντο τοὺς ναυαγούς. ὅτι μὲν γὰρ οὐδενὸς ἄλλου καθήπτοντο
ἐπιστολὴν ἐπεδείκνυε μαρτύριον ἣν ἔπεμψαν οἱ στρατηγοὶ εἰς τὴν
βουλὴν καὶ εἰς τὸν δῆμον, ἄλλο οὐδὲν αἰτιώμενοι ἢ τὸν χειμῶνα. μετὰ
ταῦτα δὲ οἱ στρατηγοὶ βραχέως ἕκαστος ἀπελογήσατο (οὐ γὰρ
προυτέθη σφίσι λόγος κατὰ τὸν νόμον), καὶ τὰ πεπραγμένα
διηγοῦντο, ὅτι αὐτοὶ μὲν ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους πλέοιεν, τὴν δὲ ἀναίρεσιν
τῶν ναυαγῶν προστάξαιεν τῶν τριηράρχων ἀνδράσιν ἱκανοῖς καὶ
ἐστρατηγηκόσιν ἤδη, Θηραμένει καὶ Θρασυβούλῳ καὶ ἄλλοις τοιούτοις·
καὶ εἴπερ γέ τινας δέοι, περὶ τῆς ἀναιρέσεως οὐδένα ἄλλον
ἔχειν αὐτοὺς αἰτιάσασθαι ἢ τούτους οἷς προσετάχθη. “καὶ οὐχ ὅτι γε
κατηγοροῦσιν ἡμῶν” ἔφασαν “ψευσόμεθα φάσκοντες αὐτοὺς αἰτίους
εἶναι, ἀλλὰ τὸ μέγεθος τοῦ χειμῶνος εἶναι τὸ κωλῦσαν τὴν ἀναίρεσιν.”
τούτων δὲ μάρτυρας παρείχοντο τοὺς κυβερνήτας καὶ ἄλλους τῶν
συμπλεόντων πολλούς.

English

After this an assembly took place in which other men and especially Theramenes spoke against the generals, saying it was appropriate for them to provide an account because they had not picked up the shipwrecked men. He showed as evidence that they fastened blame on no-one else a letter that the generals had sent to the Council and the people, blaming nothing other than the storm. After this the generals each spoke briefly in defence (for a full scale speech according to the law was not granted to them), and they explained the things that had been done – that they themselves were sailing against the enemy, but they had assigned the recovery of the shipwrecked men to men among the trireme captains who were capable and who had served as generals already, Theramenes and Thrasybulus others of the same kind; and if it was necessary to blame any about the recovery, they were able to blame no-one other than these men to whom it had been assigned. ‘And just because they are speaking against us’ they said ‘we will not lie and say that they are to blame, but rather the magnitude of the storm was what hindered the recovery.’ They produced as witnesses of these things the helmsmen and many others of those sailing with them.

Hellenica 1.7.4–7

Xenophon Unseen 6.10

The Thirty (an oligarchic junta that briefly ruled Athens in 404–3 BC), because their
power is becoming less secure, seek a place of refuge at Eleusis and the involvement of
its citizens in their guilt.

Greek

καὶ παραγγείλαντες τοῖς ἱππεῦσιν ἦλθον εἰς Ἐλευσῖνα Κριτίας τε καὶ
οἱ ἄλλοι τῶν τριάκοντα· ἐξέτασίν τε ποιήσαντες ἐν τοῖς ἱππεῦσι,
φάσκοντες εἰδέναι βούλεσθαι πόσοι εἶεν καὶ πόσης φυλακῆς
προσδεήσοιντο, ἐκέλευον ἀπογράφεσθαι πάντας· τὸν δὲ
ἀπογραψάμενον ἀεὶ διὰ τῆς πυλίδος ἐπὶ τὴν θάλατταν ἐξιέναι. ἐπὶ δὲ
τῷ αἰγιαλῷ τοὺς μὲν ἱππέας ἔνθεν καὶ ἔνθεν κατέστησαν, τὸν δ’ ἐξιόντα
ἀεὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται συνέδουν . ἐπεὶ δὲ πάντες συνειλημμένοι ἦσαν,
Λυσίμαχον τὸν ἵππαρχον ἐκέλευον ἀναγαγόντα παραδοῦναι αὐτοὺς τοῖς
ἕνδεκα. τῇ δ’ ὑστεραίᾳ εἰς τὸ Ὠιδεῖον παρεκάλεσαν τοὺς ἐν τῷ καταλόγῳ
ὁπλίτας καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους ἱππέας. ἀναστὰς δὲ Κριτίας ἔλεξεν· “ἡμεῖς,” ἔφη
”ὦ ἄνδρες, οὐδὲν ἧττον ὑμῖν κατασκευάζομεν τὴν πολιτείαν ἢ ἡμῖν
αὐτοῖς. δεῖ οὖν ὑμᾶς, ὥσπερ καὶ τιμῶν μεθέξετε, οὕτω καῖ τῶν κινδύνων
μετέχειν. τῶν οὖν συνειλημμένων Ἐλευσινίων καταψηφιστέον ἐστίν,
ἵνα ταὐτὰ ἡμῖν καὶ θαρρῆτε καὶ φοβῆσθε.”

English

When they had summoned the cavalry, Critias and rest of the Thirty came to Eleusis. After holding a review in the presence of the cavalry – saying they wanted to know how many people there were, and how big a garrison they would need in addition – they ordered everyone to register, and every man when he had registered to go out through the small gate to the sea. On the shore they stationed cavalry on this side and that, and their servants bound fast every man as he was going out. When they had all been seized they ordered Lysimachus the cavalry commander to take them back (to Athens) and hand them over to the Eleven. The next day they summoned to the Odeum the hoplites on the register and also the cavalrymen. Critias stood up and spoke ‘We, gentlemen,’ he said, ‘are preparing the constitution no less for you than for ourselves. Therefore, just as you will have a share of honours, so you must also have a share of the dangers. And so now you must now vote to condemn those of the Eleusinians who have been seized, so that you may both have confidence in and fear the same things as us.’

Hellenica 1.7.4–7