GCSE Latin: Prose B (2018-19)


Cover

Druids
and
Boudica’s Rebellion

Cambridge Latin Anthology

Caesar and Tacitus

GCSE Latin set text 2018 & 2019

Two Druids, 19th-century engraving based on a 1719 illustration by Bernard de Montfaucon

Contents

1

The Druids’ power (i)

Druides rebus divinis intersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur: ad hos magnus numerus adulescentium discendi causa concurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore. nam fere de omnibus controversiis publicis privatisque constituunt, et, si quod facinus admissum est si caedes facta, si de hereditate, de finibus controversia est, Druides rem decernunt, praemia poenasque constituunt. si quis aut privatus aut publicus eorum decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt: haec poena apud eos est gravissima.

'An Arch Druid in His Judicial Habit', from The Costume of the Original Inhabitants of the British Islands by S.R. Meyrick and C.H. Smith (1815)

The Druids’ power (i)

The Druids are concerned with divine activities, they look after public and private sacrifices, they explain religious questions: to them (i.e. the Druids) a great number of young men flock for the sake of learning, and in great honour they (i.e. the Druids) are (held) among them. For they decide about almost all disputes, public and private, and, if any crime has been committed, if murder has been carried out, if there is a dispute about inheritance, about boundaries, the Druids settle the matter, they decide the rewards and punishments. If anyone, either a private or public (citizen), has not stood by their decision, they ban (them) from sacrifices: this punishment is the most serious among them.

'An Arch Druid in His Judicial Habit', from The Costume of the Original Inhabitants of the British Islands by S.R. Meyrick and C.H. Smith (1815)

The Druids’ power (i)

Druides rebus divinis intersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur: ad hos magnus numerus adulescentium discendi causa concurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore. nam fere de omnibus controversiis publicis privatisque constituunt, et, si quod facinus admissum est si caedes facta, si de hereditate, de finibus controversia est, Druides rem decernunt, praemia poenasque constituunt. si quis aut privatus aut publicus eorum decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt: haec poena apud eos est gravissima.

'An Arch Druid in His Judicial Habit', from The Costume of the Original Inhabitants of the British Islands by S.R. Meyrick and C.H. Smith (1815)

The Druids’ power (i)

Druids Quiz 1

The Sacred Grove of the Druids (The French School, 19th century engraving)

2

The Druids’ power (ii)

ei quibus ita interdictum est numero impiorum ac scelestorum habentur; eis omnes decedunt, aditum sermonemque fugiunt, ne quid ex contagione incommodi accipiant; neque eis petentibus ius redditur neque honos ullus datur. his autem omnibus Druidibus praeest unus, qui summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. hoc mortuo, aut is qui ex reliquis excellit dignitate succedit, aut, si sunt multi pares, suffragio Druidum, nonnumquam etiam armis, de principatu contendunt. disciplina eorum in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam translata esse existimatur, et nunc ei, qui diligentius eam rem cognoscere volunt, plerumque in Britanniam discendi causa proficiscuntur.

The Druids’ power (ii)

Those who have been banned in this way are considered among the number of the wicked and the criminal; everybody avoids them, they flee their approach and conversation in case they receive any harm from contact; nor is justice given to those seeking (it), nor is any honour given (to them). However, one man is in charge of all these Druids, who has the greatest authority over them. When he dies, either the man who stands out from the rest in dignity succeeds, or, if there are many equals, they compete for the leadership in a vote of the Druids, sometimes even with arms. Their training is thought to have been invented in Britain and to have been transferred from there into Gaul, and now those who want to learn this business more in depth for the most part set out to Britain for the sake of learning.

The Druids’ power (ii)

ei quibus ita interdictum est numero impiorum ac scelestorum habentur; eis omnes decedunt, aditum sermonemque fugiunt, ne quid ex contagione incommodi accipiant; neque eis petentibus ius redditur neque honos ullus datur. his autem omnibus Druidibus praeest unus, qui summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. hoc mortuo, aut is qui ex reliquis excellit dignitate succedit, aut, si sunt multi pares, suffragio Druidum, nonnumquam etiam armis, de principatu contendunt. disciplina eorum in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam translata esse existimatur, et nunc ei, qui diligentius eam rem cognoscere volunt, plerumque in Britanniam discendi causa proficiscuntur.

3

The Druids’ training

Druides a bello abesse solent neque tributa una cum reliquis pendunt; militiae vacationem omniumque rerum immunitatem habent. tantis praemiis excitati et sua sponte multi in disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus propinquisque mittuntur. magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur; itaque nonnulli viginti annos in disciplina permanent. neque fas esse existimant hos versus litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus Graecis litteris utantur. id mihi duabus de causis instituisse videntur, quod neque in vulgum disciplinam efferri velint, neque eos, qui discunt, litteris confisos minus memoriae studere. in primis hoc volunt persuadere, animas non perire, sed ab aliis post mortem transire ad alios, atque hoc maxime homines ad virtutem excitari putant metu mortis neglecto. multa praeterea de sideribus atque eorum motu, de mundi ac terrarum magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum immortalium vi ac potestate disputant et iuventuti tradunt.

The Druids’ training

The Druids are accustomed to be exempt from war and they do not pay taxes together with the rest; they have an exemption from military service and freedom from all duties. Encouraged by such great rewards, many gather for training, both of their own accord and sent by their parents and relatives. There they are said to learn by heart a great number of verses; and so several people remain in training for twenty years. And they do not think it right to entrust these verses to writing, when in almost (all) other matters they use Greek letters. They appear to me to have established that for two reasons, because they do not want their training to be spread to the general public, nor do they want those who are learning to pay less attention to their memories because they are relying on writing. Especially they want to persuade people this, that souls do not die, but after death they cross from one to another, and by this belief they think that men are very much roused towards courage, since the fear of death has been removed. Besides they discuss many things about the stars and their movement, about the world and the size of the earth, about the workings of nature, about the strength and power of the immortal gods, and they pass on these things to their young people.

The Druids’ training

Druides a bello abesse solent neque tributa una cum reliquis pendunt; militiae vacationem omniumque rerum immunitatem habent. tantis praemiis excitati et sua sponte multi in disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus propinquisque mittuntur. magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur; itaque nonnulli viginti annos in disciplina permanent. neque fas esse existimant hos versus litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus Graecis litteris utantur. id mihi duabus de causis instituisse videntur, quod neque in vulgum disciplinam efferri velint, neque eos, qui discunt, litteris confisos minus memoriae studere. in primis hoc volunt persuadere, animas non perire, sed ab aliis post mortem transire ad alios, atque hoc maxime homines ad virtutem excitari putant metu mortis neglecto. multa praeterea de sideribus atque eorum motu, de mundi ac terrarum magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum immortalium vi ac potestate disputant et iuventuti tradunt.

4

The Druids’ religion

natio omnis Gallorum est magnopere dedita religionibus, atque ob eam causam ei, qui sunt affecti gravioribus morbis quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, aut pro victimis homines immolant aut se immolaturos esse vovent administrisque ad ea sacrificia Druidibus utuntur, quod, nisi pro vita hominis reddatur hominis vita, non posse deorum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur: publiceque eiusdem generis habent instituta sacrificia. alii simulacra ingenti magnitudine habent, quorum membra viminibus contexta vivis hominibus complent; simulacris incensis homines flamma circumventi pereunt. supplicia eorum qui in furto aut in latrocinio aut aliqua noxia sint comprehensi gratiora deis immortalibus esse arbitrantur; sed, cum copia eius generis defecit, etiam ad innocentium supplicia descendunt.

The Wicker man of the Druids, from A tour in Wales by Thomas Pennant (1726-1798)

The Druids’ religion

The whole nation of the Gauls is very much devoted to religious beliefs, and for this reason, those who have been affected by more serious illnesses, and those who are engaged in battles and dangers, either sacrifice men as victims or vow that they will sacrifice and they use the Druids as assistants for these sacrifices, because, unless the life of a man is given back for the life of a man, they think that the divine power of the immortal gods cannot be appeased: and they have sacrifices of this kind established in the name of the state. Some have figures of huge size, whose limbs, woven from branches, they fill with living men; when the figures have been set on fire the men perish surrounded by flame. They think that the executions of those who have been caught in theft or robbery or some offence are more pleasing to the immortal gods; but, when the supply of this kind has run out, they even stoop to the executions of innocent people.

The Wicker man of the Druids, from A tour in Wales by Thomas Pennant (1726-1798)

The Druids’ religious practices

omnis … magnopere – both words combine to emphasise how important religious matters are to the Gauls.

est magnopere dedita – the hyperbaton (the usual word order wold be magnopere dedita est) further stresses the importance of religion in Gaul.

immolant … immolaturum – the repetition (polyptoton) of this word form highlights the shocking nature of this sacrifice.

pro vita hominis reddatur hominis vita – a chiasmus to explain the reasoning behind the ritualised murder.

deorum immortalium numen – a powerful phrase, especially the juxtaposition of immortalium and numen, to express the influence of the gods over the Druids.

The Wicker man of the Druids, from A tour in Wales by Thomas Pennant (1726-1798)

publice – the word is promoted to the front of the sentence to convey the wide-acceptance of this practice among the Gallic people.

ingenti magnitudine – the size of the figures is emphasised by this elaborate expression.

flamma circumventi – this extra detail makes the description more vivid, and gruesome.

sed, cum copia sed provides a strong connection with what follows, the shocking revelation that it is not only criminals who are burned alive.

etiam descenduntdescendunt is an emotive word which suggests the Druids knowingly act immorally, their depravity being renforced by etiam.

The Wicker man of the Druids, from A tour in Wales by Thomas Pennant (1726-1798)

Druids Quiz 4

The Wicker man of the Druids, from A tour in Wales by Thomas Pennant (1726-1798)

5

The Romans attack Anglesey

Suetonius igitur Monam insulam, incolis validam et receptaculum perfugarum, aggredi parat: navibus pedites, equites vado secuti aut adnantes equis transierunt. stabat pro litore diversa acies, densa armis virisque, intercursantibus feminis; quae in modum Furiarum veste ferali, crinibus deiectis faces praeferebant; Druidesque circum, preces diras sublatis ad caelum manibus fundentes, novitate aspectus perculerunt milites ut quasi haerentibus membris immobile corpus vulneribus praeberent. deinde hortante duce et se ipsi stimulantes ne muliebre et fanaticum agmen timerent, inferunt signa sternuntque obvios et igni suo involvunt. praesidium posthac impositum est victis excisique sunt luci saevis superstitionibus sacri: nam Druides cruore captivo adolere aras et hominum fibris consulere deos fas habebant.

Druids Inciting the Britons to Oppose the Landing of the Romans - from Cassell's History of England, Vol. I - anonymous author and artists

The Romans attack Anglesey

Suetonius therefore prepared to attack the island of Anglesey, (which was) dense with inhabitants and a refuge for deserters. The infantry crossed in boats and the cavalry by following in shallow water or by swimming beside their horses. There stood the opposing battle-line on the foreshore, thick with weapons and men, and with women running about among (them). These, in the manner of Furies, in their black clothing and with dishevelled hair, were holding torches in front of them; and the Druids all around, pouring out their terrible prayers, with their hands lifted to heaven, overawed the soldiers with the strangeness of their appearance, so that, as if their limbs were paralysed, they exposed their motionless bodies to injuries. Then, as their leader encouraged them and they themselves urged on one another not to be afraid of a crowd of fanatical women, they advanced their standards and mowed down those in their path and surrounded them in their own fire. After this they established a garrison on the defeated, and their groves, which were dedicated to barbaric rites, were cut down; for the Druids considered it right to worship at altars with the blood of captives and to consult the gods with the entrails of humans.

Druids Inciting the Britons to Oppose the Landing of the Romans - from Cassell's History of England, Vol. I - anonymous author and artists

The Romans attack Anglesey

Suetonius igitur Monam insulam, incolis validam et receptaculum perfugarum, aggredi parat: navibus pedites, equites vado secuti aut adnantes equis transierunt. stabat pro litore diversa acies, densa armis virisque, intercursantibus feminis; quae in modum Furiarum veste ferali, crinibus deiectis faces praeferebant; Druidesque circum, preces diras sublatis ad caelum manibus fundentes, novitate aspectus perculerunt milites ut quasi haerentibus membris immobile corpus vulneribus praeberent. deinde hortante duce et se ipsi stimulantes ne muliebre et fanaticum agmen timerent, inferunt signa sternuntque obvios et igni suo involvunt. praesidium posthac impositum est victis excisique sunt luci saevis superstitionibus sacri: nam Druides cruore captivo adolere aras et hominum fibris consulere deos fas habebant.

Druids Inciting the Britons to Oppose the Landing of the Romans - from Cassell's History of England, Vol. I - anonymous author and artists

6

Boudica’s Revolt: Roman outrages

rex Icenorum Prasutagus, divitiis diu clarus, Caesarem heredem duasque filias scripserat, tali obsequio ratus et regnum et domum suam procul iniuria futuram esse. quod contra vertit, adeo ut regnum a centurionibus, domus a servis velut capta vastarentur. iam primum uxor eius Boudica verberata et filiae stupro violatae sunt: principes omnes Icenorum, quasi Romani totam regionem muneri accepissent, avitis bonis exuuntur, et propinqui regis inter servos habebantur. qua contumelia et metu graviorum permoti, quod in formam provinciae cesserant, rapiunt arma; commoti sunt ad rebellionem Trinobantes et qui alii, nondum servitio fracti, recipere libertatem occultis coniurationibus pepigerant.

Boadicea (Boudica) and her army

Boudica’s Revolt: Roman outrages

Prasutagus, king of the Iceni, for a long time famous for his wealth, had written in his will the emperor Nero, and his own two daughters, as his heirs, thinking that by such submissiveness both the kingdom and his own household would be far from trouble. The situation turned out just the opposite, to the extent that the kingdom was plundered by centurions and his household by slaves, just as if they had been captured. To begin with his wife Boudica was beaten and his daughters raped. All the chiefs of the Iceni, as though the Romans had received the whole region as a gift, were deprived of their ancestral goods and relatives of the king were treated like slaves. Driven by this humiliation and the fear of worse injustices, because they had fallen to the status of a province, they took up arms. The Trinobantes were moved to rebellion and others who, not yet broken by slavery, had pledged themselves in secret conspiracies to take back their freedom.

Boadicea (Boudica) and her army

Boudica’s Revolt: Roman outrages

rex Icenorum Prasutagus, divitiis diu clarus, Caesarem heredem duasque filias scripserat, tali obsequio ratus et regnum et domum suam procul iniuria futuram esse. quod contra vertit, adeo ut regnum a centurionibus, domus a servis velut capta vastarentur. iam primum uxor eius Boudica verberata et filiae stupro violatae sunt: principes omnes Icenorum, quasi Romani totam regionem muneri accepissent, avitis bonis exuuntur, et propinqui regis inter servos habebantur. qua contumelia et metu graviorum permoti, quod in formam provinciae cesserant, rapiunt arma; commoti sunt ad rebellionem Trinobantes et qui alii, nondum servitio fracti, recipere libertatem occultis coniurationibus pepigerant.

Boadicea (Boudica) and her army

7

Boudica’s Revolt: rampaging Britons

acerrimum in veteranos odium; qui in coloniam Camulodunum nuper deducti pellebant domibus Trinobantes, exturbabant agris, captivos vel servos appellabant; militesque superbiam saevitiamque veteranorum incitabant similitudine vitae et spe eiusdem licentiae. ad hoc, templum divo Claudio exstructum quasi arx aeternae dominationis aspiciebatur, electique sacerdotes specie religionis omnes fortunas suas effundebant. nec difficile videbatur delere coloniam nullis munimentis saeptam; quod ducibus nostris parum provisum erat, cum amoenitati prius quam usui consuluissent.

The siege of the temple of Claudius in Colchester

Boudica’s Revolt: rampaging Britons

Their hatred towards the veterans was very bitter; these men, recently installed in the settlement of Camulodunum, were driving out the Trinobantes from their homes, forcibly expelling them from their land, calling them captives or slaves. And our soldiers encouraged the insolent behaviour and savagery of the veterans due to the similarity of life and the hope of the same freedom to misbehave. Moreover, the temple built to divine Claudius was regarded as a focal point of eternal domination and the chosen priests were pouring out all their own wealth in the pretence of religious observation. Nor did it seem difficult to destroy the settlement, which was protected by no fortifications; that had been inadequately considered by our generals when they had prioritised appearance over practicality.

The siege of the temple of Claudius in Colchester

Boudica’s Revolt: rampaging Britons

acerrimum in veteranos odium; qui in coloniam Camulodunum nuper deducti pellebant domibus Trinobantes, exturbabant agris, captivos vel servos appellabant; militesque superbiam saevitiamque veteranorum incitabant similitudine vitae et spe eiusdem licentiae. ad hoc, templum divo Claudio exstructum quasi arx aeternae dominationis aspiciebatur, electique sacerdotes specie religionis omnes fortunas suas effundebant. nec difficile videbatur delere coloniam nullis munimentis saeptam; quod ducibus nostris parum provisum erat, cum amoenitati prius quam usui consuluissent.

The siege of the temple of Claudius in Colchester

8

Boudica’s Revolt: preparation for battle

iam Suetonio erant quarta decima legio cum vexillariis vicensimae et e proximis auxiliares, decem ferme milia armatorum: contendere et acie congredi parat. eligitque locum angustis faucibus et a tergo silvis clausum; sciebat enim nihil hostium esse nisi in fronte, et apertam esse planitiem sine metu insidiarum. igitur legionarii instructi sunt frequentes ordinibus, levi armatura circumstante; equites conglobati pro cornibus adstiterunt. at Britannorum copiae passim per catervas et turmas exultabant, tanta multitudo quanta non alias, et animo adeo feroci ut coniuges quoque testes victoriae secum traherent, plaustrisque imponerent quae ad extremam planitiem posuerant.

General route of Watling Street overlaid on an outdated map of the Roman road network in Britain

Boudica’s Revolt: preparation for battle

Now Suetonius had the fourteenth legion with detachments of the twentieth and auxiliaries from neighbouring areas, about ten thousand armed men. He prepared to make haste and join battle. And he chose a place with narrow defiles and shut off from the rear by woods. For he knew that there was nothing of the enemy except in front of him and the plain was open without fear of ambush. Therefore the legionaries were drawn up in close formation, with lightly-armed troops stationed around; the massed cavalry stood by on the wings. But the forces of the Britons were rushing about wildly everywhere in groups of infantry and troops of cavalry, as great a crowd as at no other time and in such ferocious spirit that they brought with them their wives also as witnesses of their victory, and they put them in wagons which they had placed at the edge of the plain.

General route of Watling Street overlaid on an outdated map of the Roman road network in Britain

Boudica’s Revolt: preparation for battle

iam Suetonio erant quarta decima legio cum vexillariis vicensimae et e proximis auxiliares, decem ferme milia armatorum: contendere et acie congredi parat. eligitque locum angustis faucibus et a tergo silvis clausum; sciebat enim nihil hostium esse nisi in fronte, et apertam esse planitiem sine metu insidiarum. igitur legionarii instructi sunt frequentes ordinibus, levi armatura circumstante; equites conglobati pro cornibus adstiterunt. at Britannorum copiae passim per catervas et turmas exultabant, tanta multitudo quanta non alias, et animo adeo feroci ut coniuges quoque testes victoriae secum traherent, plaustrisque imponerent quae ad extremam planitiem posuerant.

General route of Watling Street overlaid on an outdated map of the Roman road network in Britain

9

Boudica’s Revolt: the Battle of Watling Street

ac primum legio gradu immota et angustiis loci defensa, postquam in appropinquantes hostes certo iactu tela exhauserat, tamquam cuneo erupit. auxiliares quoque impetum faciunt; et equites protentis hastis perfringunt quod obvium et validum erat. ceteri terga praebuerunt, difficili effugio, quia circumiecta plaustra saepserant abitus. et milites ne feminis quidem parcebant, confixaque telis etiam iumenta corporum cumulum auxerant. eo die milites laudem claram et parem antiquis victoriis pepererunt: quippe sunt qui paulo minus quam octoginta milia Britannorum cecidisse tradant, militum quadringentis ferme interfectis nec multo amplius vulneratis. Boudica vitam veneno finivit.

Queen Boadicea leading the Britons against the Romans

Boudica’s Revolt: the Battle of Watling Street

And first the legion, unmoved from its position and defended by the narrowness of the place, after it had used up its javelins on the approaching enemy with sure aim, charged as a wedge-formation. The auxiliaries also made an attack, and the cavalry, with spears at full stretch, broke through whatever was in the way and strong. The rest turned tail in a difficult escape, because the surrounding wagons had closed off the way out. And our soldiers spared not even the women, and pierced by javelins even the baggage animals had increased the heap of bodies. On that day the soldiers won glory which was distinguished and equal to ancient victories. Indeed, there are those who report that a little fewer than eighty thousand Britons died and that about four hundred of our soldiers were killed and not much more than four hundred were wounded. Boudica ended her life with poison.

Queen Boadicea leading the Britons against the Romans

Boudica’s Revolt: the Battle of Watling Street

ac primum legio gradu immota et angustiis loci defensa, postquam in appropinquantes hostes certo iactu tela exhauserat, tamquam cuneo erupit. auxiliares quoque impetum faciunt; et equites protentis hastis perfringunt quod obvium et validum erat. ceteri terga praebuerunt, difficili effugio, quia circumiecta plaustra saepserant abitus. et milites ne feminis quidem parcebant, confixaque telis etiam iumenta corporum cumulum auxerant. eo die milites laudem claram et parem antiquis victoriis pepererunt: quippe sunt qui paulo minus quam octoginta milia Britannorum cecidisse tradant, militum quadringentis ferme interfectis nec multo amplius vulneratis. Boudica vitam veneno finivit.

Queen Boadicea leading the Britons against the Romans

Text

The full Latin text for this paper.


The Druids’ power

Druides rebus divinis intersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur: ad hos magnus numerus adulescentium discendi causa concurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore. nam fere de omnibus controversiis publicis privatisque constituunt, et, si quod facinus admissum est si caedes facta, si de hereditate, de finibus controversia est, Druides rem decernunt, praemia poenasque constituunt. si quis aut privatus aut publicus eorum decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt: haec poena apud eos est gravissima. ei quibus ita interdictum est numero impiorum ac scelestorum habentur; eis omnes decedunt, aditum sermonemque fugiunt, ne quid ex contagione incommodi accipiant; neque eis petentibus ius redditur neque honos ullus datur. his autem omnibus Druidibus praeest unus, qui summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. hoc mortuo, aut is qui ex reliquis excellit dignitate succedit, aut, si sunt multi pares, suffragio Druidum, nonnumquam etiam armis, de principatu contendunt. disciplina eorum in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam translata esse existimatur, et nunc ei, qui diligentius eam rem cognoscere volunt, plerumque in Britanniam discendi causa proficiscuntur.


The Druids’ training

Druides a bello abesse solent neque tributa una cum reliquis pendunt; militiae vacationem omniumque rerum immunitatem habent. tantis praemiis excitati et sua sponte multi in disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus propinquisque mittuntur. magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur; itaque nonnulli viginti annos in disciplina permanent. neque fas esse existimant hos versus litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus Graecis litteris utantur. id mihi duabus de causis instituisse videntur, quod neque in vulgum disciplinam efferri velint, neque eos, qui discunt, litteris confisos minus memoriae studere. in primis hoc volunt persuadere, animas non perire, sed ab aliis post mortem transire ad alios, atque hoc maxime homines ad virtutem excitari putant metu mortis neglecto. multa praeterea de sideribus atque eorum motu, de mundi ac terrarum magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum immortalium vi ac potestate disputant et iuventuti tradunt.


The Druids’ religion

natio omnis Gallorum est magnopere dedita religionibus, atque ob eam causam ei, qui sunt affecti gravioribus morbis quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, aut pro victimis homines immolant aut se immolaturos esse vovent administrisque ad ea sacrificia Druidibus utuntur, quod, nisi pro vita hominis reddatur hominis vita, non posse deorum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur: publiceque eiusdem generis habent instituta sacrificia. alii simulacra ingenti magnitudine habent, quorum membra viminibus contexta vivis hominibus complent; simulacris incensis homines flamma circumventi pereunt. supplicia eorum qui in furto aut in latrocinio aut aliqua noxia sint comprehensi gratiora deis immortalibus esse arbitrantur; sed, cum copia eius generis defecit, etiam ad innocentium supplicia descendunt.


The Romans attack the Druids on Anglesey (i)

Suetonius igitur Monam insulam, incolis validam et receptaculum perfugarum, aggredi parat: navibus pedites, equites vado secuti aut adnantes equis transierunt. stabat pro litore diversa acies, densa armis virisque, intercursantibus feminis; quae in modum Furiarum veste ferali, crinibus deiectis faces praeferebant; Druidesque circum, preces diras sublatis ad caelum manibus fundentes, novitate aspectus perculerunt milites ut quasi haerentibus membris immobile corpus vulneribus praeberent. deinde hortante duce et se ipsi stimulantes ne muliebre et fanaticum agmen timerent, inferunt signa sternuntque obvios et igni suo involvunt. praesidium posthac impositum est victis excisique sunt luci saevis superstitionibus sacri: nam Druides cruore captivo adolere aras et hominum fibris consulere deos fas habebant.


Boudica’s Revolt: Boudica’s Revolt: Roman outrages

rex Icenorum Prasutagus, divitiis diu clarus, Caesarem heredem duasque filias scripserat, tali obsequio ratus et regnum et domum suam procul iniuria futuram esse. quod contra vertit, adeo ut regnum a centurionibus, domus a servis velut capta vastarentur. iam primum uxor eius Boudica verberata et filiae stupro violatae sunt: principes omnes Icenorum, quasi Romani totam regionem muneri accepissent, avitis bonis exuuntur, et propinqui regis inter servos habebantur. qua contumelia et metu graviorum permoti, quod in formam provinciae cesserant, rapiunt arma; commoti sunt ad rebellionem Trinobantes et qui alii, nondum servitio fracti, recipere libertatem occultis coniurationibus pepigerant.


Boudica’s Revolt: rampaging Britons

acerrimum in veteranos odium; qui in coloniam Camulodunum nuper deducti pellebant domibus Trinobantes, exturbabant agris, captivos vel servos appellabant; militesque superbiam saevitiamque veteranorum incitabant similitudine vitae et spe eiusdem licentiae. ad hoc, templum divo Claudio exstructum quasi arx aeternae dominationis aspiciebatur, electique sacerdotes specie religionis omnes fortunas suas effundebant. nec difficile videbatur delere coloniam nullis munimentis saeptam; quod ducibus nostris parum provisum erat, cum amoenitati prius quam usui consuluissent.


Boudica’s Revolt: preparation for battle

iam Suetonio erant quarta decima legio cum vexillariis vicensimae et e proximis auxiliares, decem ferme milia armatorum: contendere et acie congredi parat. eligitque locum angustis faucibus et a tergo silvis clausum; sciebat enim nihil hostium esse nisi in fronte, et apertam esse planitiem sine metu insidiarum. igitur legionarii instructi sunt frequentes ordinibus, levi armatura circumstante; equites conglobati pro cornibus adstiterunt. at Britannorum copiae passim per catervas et turmas exultabant, tanta multitudo quanta non alias, et animo adeo feroci ut coniuges quoque testes victoriae secum traherent, plaustrisque imponerent quae ad extremam planitiem posuerant.


Boudica’s Revolt: the Battle of Watling Street

ac primum legio gradu immota et angustiis loci defensa, postquam in appropinquantes hostes certo iactu tela exhauserat, tamquam cuneo erupit. auxiliares quoque impetum faciunt; et equites protentis hastis perfringunt quod obvium et validum erat. ceteri terga praebuerunt, difficili effugio, quia circumiecta plaustra saepserant abitus. et milites ne feminis quidem parcebant, confixaque telis etiam iumenta corporum cumulum auxerant. eo die milites laudem claram et parem antiquis victoriis pepererunt: quippe sunt qui paulo minus quam octoginta milia Britannorum cecidisse tradant, militum quadringentis ferme interfectis nec multo amplius vulneratis. Boudica vitam veneno finivit.