GCSE Latin: cum clauses


cum Clauses

Formula: cum + subjunctive verb
Example: cum dominus domum rediisset, cenam optimam consumpsit.
When the master had returned home, he ate an excellent meal.

The conjunction cum can mean “when,” since,” or “although.” Choose the best translation in context.

These clauses can use the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive: translate these tenses as usual.

Do not confuse this conjunction with the preposition cum (“with”). The latter must be followed by an ablative noun, and rarely starts a sentence.

Practice exercises

  1. cum in agris laborarem, magnum clamorem audivi.

    When I was working in the fields, I heard a loud noise.

  2. miles, cum multa vulnera accepisset, mortuus est.

    Since the soldier had received many wounds, he died.

  3. cum epistula accepta esset, de morte filii pater cognovit.

    When the letter had been received, the father learned about his son’s death.

  4. cum comites nostri in templo se celarent, canes feroces per forum ibat.

    While our companions were hiding in the temple, the savage dogs were going through the forum.

  5. imperator, cum multa vulnera accepisset, vixit.

    Although the general had received many wounds, he lived.

Jupiter and Juno

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