|Formula:||cum + subjunctive verb|
|Example:||cum dominus domum rediisset, cenam optimam consumpsit.|
|When the master had returned home, he ate an excellent meal.|
The conjunction cum can mean “when,” since,” or “although.” Choose the best translation in context.
These clauses can use the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive: translate these tenses as usual.
Do not confuse this conjunction with the preposition cum (“with”). The latter must be followed by an ablative noun, and rarely starts a sentence.
- cum in agris laborarem, magnum clamorem audivi.
When I was working in the fields, I heard a loud noise.
- miles, cum multa vulnera accepisset, mortuus est.
Since the soldier had received many wounds, he died.
- cum epistula accepta esset, de morte filii pater cognovit.
When the letter had been received, the father learned about his son’s death.
- cum comites nostri in templo se celarent, canes feroces per forum ibat.
While our companions were hiding in the temple, the savage dogs were going through the forum.
- imperator, cum multa vulnera accepisset, vixit.
Although the general had received many wounds, he lived.
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